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The Financial System Chapter 16.

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Presentation on theme: "The Financial System Chapter 16."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Financial System Chapter 16

2 Outline the structure and importance of the financial system. List the various types of securities. Define financial market, and distinguish between primary and secondary financial markets. Describe the characteristics of the major stock exchanges. 1 Learning Objectives Discuss the organization and functioning of financial institutions. Explain the functions of the Federal Reserve System and the tools it uses to control the supply of money and credit. Evaluate the major features of regulations and laws affecting the financial system. Describe the global financial system. 2345678

3 The financial system is the process by which money flows from savers to users. The Financial System

4 Financial System Savers Users Financial Institutions Financial Markets Savings is a function of many variables. Funds can be transferred between users and savers directly or indirectly. Understanding the Financial System

5 Securities Financial instruments Obligations on the part of the issuer Businesses and governments Provide rate of return to purchasers Types of Securities Money market instruments Bonds Stock

6 Short-term debt securities Issued by governments, financial institutions, and corporations Investors are paid interest for the use of their funds Generally low-risk U.S. Treasury bills, commercial paper, and bank certificates of deposit Money Market Instruments

7 Government Bonds Bonds sold by the U.S. Department of the Treasury Municipal Bonds Bonds issued by state or local governments Revenue bonds are used toward a project that will produce revenue, general obligation bonds are not Corporate Bonds A diverse group and often vary based on the collateral Bonds

8 Types of Bonds

9 Price is determined by risk and interest rate. Several firms rate bonds Standard & Poor’s (S&P) Moody’s Investment-grade Speculative/Junk Bond Ratings


11 Common stock– ownership claims in corporations Vote on major company decisions Cash dividends Price appreciation Preferred stock– stockholders who receive preference in the payment of dividends Stocks

12 Stockholder has the right to exchange the bond or preferred stock for a fixed number of shares of common stock. Convertible Securities

13 Primary market– firms and governments issue securities and sell them initially to the public When a firm offers a stock for sale to the general public for the first time Secondary market– collection of financial markets in which previously issued securities are traded among investors Financial Markets

14 Stock market (exchange)– market in which shares are bought and sold by investors, such as the New York Stock Exchange. Understanding Stock Markets

15 The New York Stock Exchange– the Big Board is the most famous and one of the oldest stock markets in the world. More than 3,000 stocks are listed on the NYSE. The Nasdaq Stock Market– the second largest stock market. Over 5,000 companies have their stocks listed on Nasdaq, but many are smaller firms. Other U.S. Stock Markets: The American Stock Exchange/AMEX Regional stock exchanges Foreign markets Stock Exchanges

16 ECNs– Electronic Communication Networks The 4 th market Buyers and sellers meet in a virtual market and exchange with one another Take place on INET or Archipelago INET and Archipelago have been purchased by Nasdaq and the NYSE ECNs and the Future of Stock Markets

17 Investors use brokerage firms to: 1. Establish an account 2. Enter orders 3. Trade stock The brokerage firm executes the trade on behalf of the investor, charging a fee for the order. Market order Limit order Investor Participation in the Stock Market

18 Commercial Banks Savings Banks and Credit Unions Non-depository Institutions Financial Institutions


20 An increasing amount of funds move through electronic funds transfers (EFTs). Millions of businesses and consumers now pay bills and receive payments electronically. Most employers directly deposit employee paychecks. Social Security and other federal payments are made each year electronically. Most banks now offer customers debit cards More than 1/3 of American households use some online banking. Electronic Banking

21 Enacted by the Banking Act of 1933 Restored public confidence in the banking system Before deposit insurance, runs were common as people rushed to withdraw their money from the bank Deposit insurance shifts the risk of bank failures from individuals to the FDICFDIC Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation

22 Offer a variety of consumer services 80+% of their loans are real estate loans Credit unions are cooperative financial institutions owned by depositors/members Credit unions are created to serve consumers Insured by National Credit Union Administration (NCUA), which functions the same as the FDIC Savings Banks and Credit Unions

23 Insurance Companies Pension Funds Finance Companies Mutual Funds Nondepository Financial Institutions

24 The Federal ReserveFederal Reserve Created In 1913 Central bank of the United States Regulates commercial banks Performs banking-related activities for the U.S. Department of Treasury Provides services for banks Sets monetary policy The Role of the Federal Reserve

25 12 Federal reserve districts Own federal reserve bank District banks are run by a nine-member board of directors The board of governors is the governing body Politically independent Federal Open Markets Committee (FOMC) sets most policies concerning monetary policy and interest rates Organization of the Federal Reserve

26 Americans still write billions of paper checks. The process by which funds are transferred from the check writer to receiver is a multiple-step process managed and cleared by the Fed. The Check Clearing for the 21st Century Act is making this process more electronic. Check Clearing and the Fed

27 Controlling supply of money and credit Measures of the money supply: M1 & M2 The Fed requires banks to maintain reserves Set the discount rate Open market operations Monetary Policy

28 M1 & M2

29 Bank regulation Government regulation of the financial markets (SEC)SEC Industry self-regulation Rules of conduct by professional organizations like National Association of Securities Dealers Market surveillance Regulation of the Financial System

30 The financial system is more connected. Financial institutions are more global. Only 3 of the 30 largest banks in the world are U.S. institutions. Most nations have a central bank. The Financial System: A Global Perspective

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