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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 16 PEOPLES AND EMPIRES IN THE AMERICAS"— Presentation transcript:


2 PACIFIC NORTHWEST Area covered Oregon to Alaska Rich in resources
Kwakiutl, Nootka, and Haida societies relied heavily on the sea Differences in wealth led to the creation of social classes Potlatch = Ceremony where families showed their rank and wealth by giving away food, drinks, and gifts

3 HOHOKAM Southwest Used irrigation to successfully grow corn, beans, and squash Influenced by Anasazi Used pottery which showed contact with Mesoamerican societies in the south

4 ANASAZI Lived in Four Corners region (Utah, Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico) Built pueblos - huge cliff-dwellings and apartment-style villages; built in 900s AD Pueblo Bonito is one of the largest villages By 1200 AD, all pueblos of this culture were abandoned

5 MISSISSIPPIAN Last of the great Mound Builder societies
Lived in wooded lands east of the Mississippi River Leaders were priests Built gigantic temple-topped pyramids Created thriving villages based on farming and trade Cahokia – large village with a population of 30,000

Great Lakes region and upper New York State Many different tribes did clash over land in this region Five tribes united to form the political alliance known as the Iroquois League The League promoted joint defense and cooperation Believed in the Great Spirit

7 MAYA Located in southern Mexico and northern Central America
Tikal – major city located in Guatemala Used a codex to keep track of important historical events; it was written on a bark-paper book Glyphs - created 800 hieroglyphic symbols and carved them into stone Based their calendar on careful observations of the planets, sun, and moon Developed math and astronomy to support religious beliefs Popol Vuh – book that tells the Maya’s story of creation Decline of their civilization occurred several hundred years before the Spanish arrived (800s AD) due to civil war, population growth, over-farming, famine, and disease

8 TEOTIHUACAN First major civilization of central Mexico
Organized as a city-state Center of a thriving trade network Most valuable trade item was obsidian – green or black volcanic glass used to make weapons

9 TOLTEC 900 AD Mesoamerican culture that ruled Mexico for 300 years before the Aztec Built pyramids and temples Warlike people who built and empire through conquest

10 QUETZALCOATL Toltec ruler, Topiltzin, changed his culture’s religion by introducing this deity Depicted as a Feathered Serpent He was also a main god for the Aztec His followers believed his return would result in a golden age

11 AZTEC 1200 AD Valley of Mexico
Warlike people who built and empire through conquest Believed in human sacrifice; blood was needed to satisfy gods Were resented by conquered peoples because the Aztec would sacrifice them Entered into the Triple Alliance with Texcoco and Tlacopan

12 TENOCHTITLAN Early 1500s Planned city with a population of between 200,000 and 400,000 Capital of the Aztec empire It was built on an island Engineers built causeways (raised roads) to connect city to mainland Huge center of trade

13 INCA Built the largest Mesoamerican empire (large portion of the west coast of South America) Began in Andes mountains Government was supported by taxes, bureaucracy, and road system Pachacuti was the ruler who expanded Inca kingdom into an empire Mita – labor tribute; all capable citizens had to work for the state for a certain time period every year Ayllu – extended families used for community work projects; built canals and terraces Quipu – knotted strings used to record data Decline of Inca – rivals fought for throne and arrival of the Spanish


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