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**Unit 2: Engineering Design Process**

Foundations of Technology Unit 2: Engineering Design Process Lesson 1: Engineering Design Process The Engineering Design Process

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Objectives Students learn to: Apply the steps of the design process including defining a problem, brainstorming, researching and generating ideas, identifying criteria and specifying constraints, exploring possibilities, selecting an approach, developing a design proposal, making a model or prototype, testing, and communicating results. Use symbolic algebra to represent and explain mathematical relationships Contribute to a group endeavor by offering useful ideas, supporting the efforts of others, and focusing on the task.

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Objectives Visualize three-dimensional objects and spaces from different perspectives and analyze their cross sections. Contribute to a group endeavor by offering useful ideas, supporting the efforts of others, and focusing on the task. Work safely and accurately with a variety of tools, machines, and materials. Actively participate in group discussions, ideation exercises, and debates.

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Vocabulary Engineering Design Process: is a systematic, iterative problem solving method which produces solutions to meet human wants and desires. Science: the study of the natural world, focuses on how and why things happen. Scientific Method: is a linear method for conducting an investigation, which involves making an observation and performing an experiment to test a hypothesis.

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Vocabulary Technology: the study of the design world. Used to solve practical problems and extend human capabilities. Developments in technology are evolutionary, and are often the result of a series of refinements to an idea or basic invention, focuses on making things happen.

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Define the Problem: includes developing a problem statement that identifies the what, who, when and how the problem should be addressed. Brainstorming Solutions: includes working as a group to develop ideas for possible solutions, record your ideas and employ the rules of brainstorming.

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**Criteria: guidelines to help develop a solution.**

Constraints: limitations of the design when developing a solution. Alternative Solutions: are necessary so that ideas remain unique and are not traditional.

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Select the Approach: determining how to proceed in the engineering design process is based on a schedule or some type of matrix that outlines all ideas based on the criteria and constraints. Design Proposal: a way to manage simple projects, which includes the who, what, when, where and how to deliver the work, how the solution will be evaluated and often includes descriptions, sketches and technical drawings.

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Make a Model/Prototype: models and prototypes can be conceptual (are abstract models that use language and graphic-based representations to convey meaning), mathematical (are abstract models that use the language of mathematics to describe the behavior of the solution) or physical (are three-dimensional models, which represent the solution).

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Test and Evaluate: this step in the engineering design process is used to evaluate the model/prototype against the given criteria and constraints, all tests should be developed during the design proposal phase.

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Refine/Improve: this is an essential step in the engineering design process, and is what makes this process unique. The design is constantly reviewed and revised throughout the process so that an ideal solution is developed.

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Create/Make Product: the product produced should clearly match the design and show refinement throughout the engineering design process. Communicate the Results: the engineering design journal and/or an electronic version of the engineering design journal should be kept to record daily interaction with the design problem. This represents your ideas and thoughts throughout the process.

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The Big Idea Big Idea: The Engineering Design process is a systematic, iterative problem solving method which produces solutions to meet human wants and desires.

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**Interactive Iterative means a repetition of the process. **

This often means you must go through the steps numerous times. Each time you go through the design process, you think of ways to improve your solution to the problem based on performance or testing.

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**Defining Science Science:**

Systematic knowledge of the physical or natural world gained through observation and experimentation. Focuses on how and why things happen. Scientists answer questions

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**Defining Technology Technology:**

Application of knowledge to solve practical problems or to change/manipulate the human environment. Focuses on making things happen. Engineers solve problems

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Scientific Method The Scientific Method is a linear method for conducting an investigation that involves making an observation and performing an experiment to test a hypothesis. Make an Observation Propose a Hypothesis Design an Experiment Test the Hypothesis Accept or Reject the Hypothesis Revise the Hypothesis or Draw Conclusions

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**Engineering Design Process**

The Engineering Design Process is a systematic, iterative problem-solving method that produces solutions to meet human needs and wants. Systematically applies mathematics and science to produce tangible products that meet human needs or wants.

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**Engineering Design Process**

At the beginning of the course, we used a simple version of the Engineering Design Process, which involved five steps. As problems become more complex so does the process used to solve them.

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**Engineering Design Process**

Define Problem Brainstorm Possible Solutions Communicate Results Research Ideas/ Explore Possibilities Create/ Make Product Define Problem Test and Evaluate Brainstorm Ideas Refine & Improve Refine and Improve Specify Constraints and Identify Criteria Generate a Solution Explore Solutions Test and Evaluate Consider Alternative Solutions Make a Model / Prototype Develop a Written Design Proposal Select An Approach

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**Scientific Method VS Engineering Process**

Match the term to either the Scientific Method or the Engineering Design Process Hypothesis Linear Procedure Involves Criteria and Constraints Conduct Research Follow a Process Defined Starting Point (State the Problem Clearly) Meets Human Need or Want Continuous Improvement

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**Scientific Method VS Engineering Process**

The Scientific Method: Defined Starting Point Hypothesis Linear Procedure Conduct Research Follow a Process The Engineering Design Process: Involves Criteria and Constraints Meets Human Need or Want Continuous Improvement Conduct Research Follow a Process

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**Engineering Design Process**

Use the Engineering Design Journal to record each step in the Engineering Design Process.

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Define the Problem Develop a problem statement that identifies the what, who, when, and how the problem should be addressed. The problem statement should be short, descriptive, and referenced as you work through the Engineering Design Process.

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Brainstorm Solutions When working as a group, record your ideas and employ the rules of brainstorming: One conversation at a time; stay focused. Encourage wild ideas, quantity vs. quality. Defer judgment and build on the ideas of others. Use Mind Mapping, the da Vinci Method, or Inventive Problem Solving as appropriate.

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**Research Ideas/Explore Possibilities**

Research is essential in determining the best possible solution. Identify how the problem or a similar problem was addressed in the past. Determine what mathematical and/or scientific background knowledge is essential to solve the problem.

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**Specify Constraints and Identify Criteria**

Good design follows a set of given or identified criteria and constraints: Criteria = Guidelines Constraints = Limitations Document the essential criteria and constraints needed to solve the problem

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**Consider Alternative Solutions**

Always consider alternative solutions and DO NOT allow preconceptions to limit your ideas. It is important to stay open-minded. Compare each of your design ideas with the criteria and constraints to determine how well they solve the problem.

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**Select the Best Solution**

Determining the “best” solution will involve trade-offs. The “best” solution should: Align to the problem statement. Meet the identified criteria and constraints. Use a Decision Matrix to help identify the best solution.

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Select an Approach The Decision Matrix is a simple way to chart your proposed solutions (x axis) against the requirements (y axis). Establish a point scale to help determine the “best” idea. x y

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**Develop a Documented Design Proposal**

Once an idea has been selected, it is important to develop a plan of action. A Design Proposal is a way to manage simple projects, which includes: The who, what, when, where, and how to deliver the work. Often includes descriptions, sketches, and technical drawings. Begin to plan how the solution will be evaluated.

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**Develop a Documented Design Proposal**

When developing a design proposal, you will need to plan ahead to determine how you will evaluate your design. What tests will be conducted to determine if criteria are being met? What data will be collected? How will those data be used to improve the solution?

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**Develop a Documented Design Proposal**

Larger projects may require the use of a project management technique or a Gantt Chart. A Gantt Chart is a type of bar chart that shows a schedule of when/how the project can be completed.

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**Make a Model or Prototype**

Models can be conceptual, mathematical, or physical.

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**Make a Model or Prototype**

Conceptual models are abstract models that use language and graphic-based representations to convey meaning. They can include: Technical Writing Graphs and Charts Annotated Sketches Technical Drawings

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**Make a Model or Prototype**

Mathematical models are abstract models that use the language of mathematics to describe the behavior of the solution. They can include: Statistical models Differential equations Game theoretic models (computer simulation)

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**Make a Model or Prototype**

Physical models are three-dimensional models that represent the solution. They can include: Mock-Up – a representation of the final solution that does not function. Prototype – performs the final solution and can be used for testing/evaluation

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**Test and Evaluate Project planning and evaluation go hand-in- hand.**

Based on the information you projected in your design proposal you will: Record and analyze results Correct problems with the design that are discovered during testing

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**Refine and Improve Employ data-driven decision making.**

Use the data collected during the test and evaluate phase to justify improvements to the solution. The solution should be continuously improved as you move through the Engineering Design Process. Remember to document all project improvements in your journal.

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**Create and Make Product**

Working independently or in a group, develop the final physical solution. The final solution should represent the revision made as you followed the Engineering Design Process. The product produced should clearly reflect refinements made to the design throughout the process.

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**Communicate the Results**

Use the Engineering Design Journal to record and document each step in the Engineering Design Process. A more formal presentation or demonstration of the solution may be required, which should: Summarize your work (includes problem statement, design proposal, evaluation methods, etc…) Highlight why you chose the final solution.

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