Memory Can you remember your first memory? Why do you think you can remember certain events in your life over others?
Memory Memory as Information Processing similar to a computer write to file save to disk read from disk Encoding processing of info into the memory system Acoustic, Visual, & Semantic Encoding Storage retention of encoded information over time Retrieval process of getting info out of memory
Types of Memory Episodic – specific events in your life Semantic – generalized knowledge of the world that does not involve a specific event Procedural (skill memory) – knowledge of how to perform a physical task
Explicit v. Implicit Memory Explicit Memory – used to deliberately remember something Implicit Memory – unintentional influence of prior experiences
Storing New Memories Sensory Memory initial recording of sensory info in memory system holds info for a fraction of a second Working Memory focuses more on processing of briefly stored information allows us to mentally work with, or manipulate, information being held in our memory Try This: How many windows are on the front of your house or apartment building? What did you do to remember this?
Storing New Memories Short-Term Memory (STM) holds a few items briefly disappears in 20-30 seconds w/o further processing Immediate memory span = 7 +/- 2 Long-Term Memory (LTM) relatively permanent and limitless storehouse
Storing New Memories Chunking organizing into familiar, manageable units like horizontal organization--1776149218121941 often occurs automatically use of acronyms HOMES--Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie, Superior ARITHMETIC--A Rat In Tom’s House Might Eat Tom’s Ice Cream
Retrieval: Getting Information Out Recall retrieve information learned earlier as on a fill-in- the blank test Recognition identify items previously learned as on a multiple- choice test
Retrieval Cues déjà vu -- cues from current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier similar experience Mood-congruent Memory emotions, or moods serve as retrieval cues State-dependent Memory what is learned in one state (while one is sober, drunk, depressed, excited, etc.) can more easily be remembered when in same state
Retrieval Cues After learning to move a mobile by kicking, infants had their learning reactivated most strongly when retested in the same rather than a different context (Butler & Rovee- Collier, 1989).
Forgetting Forgetting = encoding failure Information never enters the long-term memory External events Sensory memory Short- term memory Long- term memory Attention Encoding failure leads to forgetting
Forgetting Forgetting as encoding failure Which penny is the real thing?
Retrieval Forgetting can result from failure to retrieve information from long-term memory External events Attention Encoding Retrieval failure leads to forgetting Retrieval Sensory memory Short-term memory Long-term memory
Memory Construction We filter information and fill in missing pieces Misinformation Effect incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event Source Amnesia attributing to the wrong source an event that we experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined (misattribution)
Memory Construction Eyewitnesses reconstruct memories when questioned Depiction of actual accident Leading question: “About how fast were the cars going when they smashed into each other?” Memory construction
Improve Your Memory Study repeatedly to boost recall Spend more time rehearsing or actively thinking about the material Make material personally meaningful Use mnemonic devices associate with peg words-- something already stored make up story chunk--acronyms
Improve Your Memory Activate retrieval cues--mentally recreate situation and mood Recall events while they are fresh-- before you encounter misinformation Minimize interference Test your own knowledge rehearse determine what you do not yet know