Presentation on theme: "Gender-Based Analysis (GBA) Research Day Winnipeg, MB February 11, 2013."— Presentation transcript:
Gender-Based Analysis (GBA) Research Day Winnipeg, MB February 11, 2013
Why are we doing this…? When it comes to health, sex and gender matter. Research is increasingly alerting us to the ways that sex and gender interact to create health conditions that are different for men and for women. (Greaves et al. 1999) “Failure to consider that men and women can be affected differently by similar situations can lead to policies that ignore the impacts on (and of) gender.”
Sex refers to the biological differences between females and males Health care planning and policy has focused largely on reproductive differences, but the range of issues is broader Sex …
Gender … Gender refers to the socially constructed roles and relationships, personality traits, attitudes, behaviours, values, relative power and influence that society ascribes to the two sexes on a differential basis. Gender refers to what it means to be masculine and to be feminine in a society and culture
GBA examines differences among women and among men Equity – Starting blocks, foundations and resources that allow women and men, boys and girls to have equal opportunity to achieve their potential in health. Diversity – Variations between and among people. This includes “observable” differences (race, residence) and also less visible ones: education, spirituality, sexual orientation, etc.
What is Gender-based Analysis (GBA)? … a way of thinking (a tool) to better understand how the experiences of women and men are different, and how they are the same … a means to consider ways in which gender interacts with other health determinants in research, policy and planning … an opportunity to bring research to decision making by broadening the scope of evidence
GBA in health includes … Identifying issues for both women and men, and for women and men separately Analysis of sex-disaggregated data Gender-sensitive research that asks about different experiences of women and men Assessing the different effects of policies on diverse groups of women and men Engaging women and men in the process of policy development and evaluation
Gender-Based Analysis is important for health decision-making GBA challenges assumptions that all people are affected in the same way by policies, programs, laws, service delivery … … And that all people show the same outcomes for health GBA uncovers hidden inequalities and inequities for men and for women
A fundamental question asked in Gender-based analysis is: not “Who is not included here?” This encourages us to think beyond the mainstream and consider what makes women and men, girls and boys, vulnerable.
Annual Incidence of Diabetes: 1989-99 Standard presentation
Sex and Age Age-Specific Incidence - Manitoba 1999
Prevalence by Sex, Age and Aboriginal Ancestry, Canada 1999 (Health Canada, 2000)
Questions to Consider Primary Prevention of Diabetes (modifiable risk factors) What factors contribute to physical inactivity & obesity among women and men? Are they different? How? How can we promote physical activity & healthy body weight among women, encouraging healthy body images for women of all sizes and ages?
Questions to Consider Secondary prevention of diabetes (early detection through screening) How can we promote appropriate diabetes screening for women & men? Do we need different strategies? What are the best strategies to reach Aboriginal women & men?
Questions to Consider Tertiary Prevention (preventing & delaying the complications of diabetes) Do women & men need different types of diabetes education? What would these be? How can we make diabetes education programs most useful to Aboriginal women and men? What Aboriginal expertise is available?
ANALYSIS: Ask Questions Do biological differences account for different risks or consequences? Does gender have added effects? Individuals’ expected traits, behaviours (nurturing vs. self care?) Interpersonal power dynamics Family contexts (i.e. single parenting) Broader social conditions (i.e. education, income)
GBA Questions Inequities What gaps in outcomes are identifiable? How might they reflect unequal opportunities, barriers? Are the needs of females/males considered – across life span, roles, ability levels, economic conditions, cultural diversity, sexual orientation?
Question status quo Have influences of gender power differences been considered? Do programs, policy, practices perpetuate gender stereotypes?
Implications, Lessons Incorporating gender may lead to… New ways of working, cross-department New partners and voices considered Critique of existing programs/practices Ongoing attention to gender, diversity Policy/programs/practices better tailored to vulnerable groups Better use of resources
Gender and Health: What can we do? View our work, research, policies and programs through a gender lens Remember that every population is gendered, so gender analysis is essential to reduce health inequities Consistently attend to the contexts of women’s and men’s lives – income, ethnicity, age, ability, sexual orientation, power, responsibilities, etc Integrate these contexts into our daily work in health