Presentation on theme: "Software Engineering Economics"— Presentation transcript:
1 Software Engineering Economics SE 361Lecture-01-02
2 What Is Economics and Why Is it Important to Us? Economics is the science of reasoned choice, at least as it applies to engineering.
3 Economy. . .. . . The word economy comes from a Greek word for “one who manages a household.”
4 A household and an economy face many decisions: Who will work?What goods and how many of them should be produced?What resources should be used in production?At what price should the goods be sold?
5 Society and Scarce Resources: The management of society’s resources is important because resources are scarce.
6 Scarcity . . .. . . means that society has limited resources and therefore cannot produce all the goods and services people wish to have.
7 Economics is the study of how society manages its scarce resources.
8 What is economics? Many definitions: It is the branch of social science that deals with the production and distribution and consumption of goods and services and their management.It is the study of choice and decision-making in a world with limited resources.It is the study of how individuals, businesses and governments use their limited resources to satisfy unlimited wants.It is the study of the production and distribution of wealth.
9 Words that have economy/economics in them: Macroeconomics: that area of economics that focuses on analysis of broad trends in a country's economy, such as inflation, unemployment and industrial production, tax rates, interest rates, and foreign and trade policy. OR Macroeconomics is the study of how people make decisions in resource-limited situations on a national or global scale. Microeconomics: The branch of economics concerned with the decisions made by individuals, households, and firms and how these decisions interact to form the prices of goods and services and the factors of production. Microeconomics is the study of how people make decisions in resource-limited situations on a more personal scale Engineering economy/economics: the systematic evaluation of the economic merits of proposed solutions
10 Economics and Software Engineering If we look at the discipline of software engineering.we see that the microeconomics branch of economics deals more with the types of decisions we need to make as software engineers or managers.Clearly, we deal with limited resourcesThere is never enough time or money to cover all the good features we would like to put into our software products.
11 Economics and Software Engineering Throughout the software life cycle, there are many decision situations involving limited resources in which software engineering economics techniques provide useful assistance.
12 Economics and Software Engineering Feasibility Phase. How much should we invest in information system analyses (user questionnaires and interviews, current-system analysis, workload etc. ) in order to meet and concept of operation for the system we plan to implement?Plans and Requirements Phase. How thoroughly should we specify requirements? How much should we invest in requirements validation activities before proceeding to design and develop a software system?Product Design Phase. Should we organize the software to make it possible to use a complex piece of existing software that generally but not completely meets our requirements?
13 Economics and Software Engineering Programming Phase. Given a choice between three data storage and retrieval schemes that are primarily execution-time efficient, storage efficient, and easy to modify, respectively, which of these should we choose to implement?Integration and Test Phase. How much testing and formal verification should we perform on a product before releasing it to users?Maintenance Phase. Given an extensive list of suggested product improvements, which ones should we implement first?Phase-out. Given an aging, hard-to-modify software product, should we replace it with a new product, restructure it, or leave it alone?
14 Economists study. . . How people make decisions. How people interact with each other.The forces and trends that affect the economy as a whole.
16 Ten Principles of Economics How People Make Decisions1. People face tradeoffs. 2. The cost of something is what you give up to get it. 3. Rational people think at the margin. 4. People respond to incentives.7
17 Ten Principles of Economics How People Interact5. Trade can make everyone better off. 6. Markets are usually a good way to organize economic activity. 7. Governments can sometimes improve economic outcomes.7
18 Ten Principles of Economics How the Economy as a Whole Works8. The standard of living depends on a country’s production. 9. Prices rise when the government prints too much money. 10. Society faces a short-run tradeoff between inflation and unemployment.7
19 “There is no such thing as a free lunch!” 1. People face tradeoffs.“There is no such thing as a free lunch!”
20 1. People face tradeoffs.To get one thing, we usually have to give up another thing.Time V studyGuns and butterMore we spend on defense ,the less we spend on consumer goodsFood and clothingEfficiency v. equityThe more we spend on nationaldefense to protect our shores from foreign aggressors (guns), the less we can spendon consumer goods to raise our standard of living at home (butter)Making decisions requires trading off one goal against another.
21 1. People face tradeoffs. Efficiency v. Equity Another tradeoff that society faces is between efficiency and equityEfficiency means society gets the most that it can from its scarce resources.Equity means the benefits of those resources are distributed fairly among the members of society.9
22 2. The cost of something is what you give up to get it. Decisions require comparing costs and benefits of alternatives.Whether to go to college or to work?Whether to study or go out to play game?Whether to go to class or sleep in?10
23 2. The cost of something is what you give up to get it. The opportunity cost of an item is what you give up to obtain that item.10
24 3. Rational people think at the margin. Marginal changes are small, incremental adjustments to an existing plan of action.People make decisions by comparing costs and benefits at the margin.11
25 4. People respond to incentives. Marginal changes in costs or benefits motivate people to respond.The decision to choose one alternative over another occurs when that alternative’s marginal benefits exceed its marginal costs!12
26 4. People respond to incentives. LA Laker basketball star Kobe Bryant chose to skip college and go straight to the NBA from high school when offered a $10 million contract.10
27 5. Trade can make everyone better off. People gain from their ability to trade with one another.Competition results in gains from trading.Trade allows people to specialize in what they do best.15
28 6. Markets are usually a good way to organize economic activity. In a market economy, households decide what to buy and who to work for.Firms decide who to hire and what to produce.16
29 6. Markets are usually a good way to organize economic activity. Adam Smith made the observation that households and firms interacting in markets act as if guided by an “invisible hand.”16
30 6. Markets are usually a good way to organize economic activity. Because households and firms look at prices when deciding what to buy and sell, they unknowingly take into account the social costs of their actions.As a result, prices guide decision makers to reach outcomes that tend to maximize the welfare of society as a whole.16
31 7. Governments can sometimes improve market outcomes. When the market fails (breaks down) government can intervene to promote efficiency and equity.17
32 7. Governments can sometimes improve market outcomes. Market failure occurs when the market fails to allocate resources efficiently.17
33 7. Governments can sometimes improve market outcomes. Market failure may be caused by an externality, which is the impact of one person or firm’s actions on the well- being of a spectator.18
34 7. Governments can sometimes improve market outcomes. Market failure may also be caused by market power, which is the ability of a single person or firm to unduly influence market prices.17
35 8. The standard of living depends on a country’s production. Standard of living may be measured in different ways:By comparing personal incomes.By comparing the total market value of a nation’s production.21
36 8. The standard of living depends on a country’s production. Almost all variations in living standards are explained by differences in countries’ productivities.21
37 8. The standard of living depends on a country’s production. Productivity is the amount of goods and services produced from each hour of a worker’s time.Higher productivity ð Higher standard of living22
38 9. Prices rise when the government prints too much money. Inflation is an increase in the overall level of prices in the economy.One cause of inflation is the growth in the quantity of money.When the government creates large quantities of money, the value of the money falls.23
39 òInflation ð ñUnemployment 10. Society faces a short-run tradeoff between inflation and unemployment.The Phillips Curve illustrates the tradeoff between inflation and unemployment:òInflation ð ñUnemploymentIt’s a short-run tradeoff!24