Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

International Space Station (ISS) Russian Spacecrafts Soyuz – MannedProgress – Unmanned Launch, On-Orbit & Landing Reference Information Select Image.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "International Space Station (ISS) Russian Spacecrafts Soyuz – MannedProgress – Unmanned Launch, On-Orbit & Landing Reference Information Select Image."— Presentation transcript:

1 International Space Station (ISS) Russian Spacecrafts Soyuz – MannedProgress – Unmanned Launch, On-Orbit & Landing Reference Information Select Image

2 Soyuz Spacecraft April 8, 2006 - Soyuz TMA-7 spacecraft departs from the ISS returning two astronauts and one cosmonaut to Earth. Soyuz ISS tasks include:  Deliver small cargoes and a crew up to three to the ISS.  Serve as a crew rescue vehicle for the ISS by performing premature or emergency return.  Return small cargoes and a crew up to three from the ISS.  Dispose of ISS waste in the Orbital Module when it burns up in the atmosphere during reentry. Instrumentation/ Propulsion Module Descent Module (with Crew) Orbital Module

3 Progress Spacecraft June 15, 2005 - The unpiloted Progress 17 supply vehicle departs from the ISS carrying its load of trash and unneeded equipment to be de-orbited and burned in Earth’s atmosphere. The undocking cleared the way for the arrival of Progress 18 to re- supply the ISS. Progress ISS tasks:  Rendezvous, dock and undock with the ISS.  Deliver supplies and fuels/fluids to the station, and transfer fuels/fluids through gas/fluid connectors in the docking ring. Transfer any surplus Progress fuels to the station.  Raise the ISS’ altitude and control its orientation using Progress’ thrusters.  Refill Progress with trash, unneeded equipment and waste water, which burns up with the vehicle when it re-enters Earth’s atmosphere. Instrumentation/ Propulsion Module Refueling Module Cargo Module

4 Oct 12, 2004 - The Soyuz TMA-5 vehicle is rolled to its launch pad at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan in preparation for its October 14 launch to send one astronaut and two cosmonauts to the ISS. Soyuz is located in the white payload fairing on the Soyuz rocket. The launch processing for the Progress spacecraft and Soyuz rocket is similar to the Soyuz spacecraft. Soyuz Transported to Launch Pad by Train

5 Sept 16, 2006 - Preparations are underway at the Baikonur Cosmodrome for liftoff of the TMA-9 spacecraft. The gantry arms begin to rotate to enshroud Soyuz. Soyuz Being Prepared for Launch at Pad

6 Oct 14, 2004 - The Soyuz TMA-5 spacecraft lifts off from the Baikonur Cosmodrome carrying astronaut Leroy Chiao, Expedition 10 commander and NASA ISS science officer, cosmonaut Salizhan S. Sharipov, Russia’s Federal Space Agency flight engineer and Soyuz commander, and Russian Space Forces cosmonaut Yuri Shargin to the ISS. Chiao and Sharipov replaced station crewmembers, cosmonaut Gennady I. Padalka, Expedition 9 commander, and astronaut Edward M. (Mike) Fincke, NASA ISS science officer and flight engineer. Soyuz Launched in Kazakhstan

7 April 19, 2006 - A Soyuz spacecraft is docked to the Russian Zarya Control Module. The Canadarm2 is to the right of Soyuz and the American Quest Airlock Module is to its left. The image was photographed by an ISS Expedition 13 crewmember from a station window. Soyuz at the ISS

8 April 21, 2007 - The Soyuz TMA-9 spacecraft approaches a landing southwest of Karaganda, Kazakhstan. Onboard were astronaut Michael E. Lopez- Alegria, Expedition 14 commander and NASA space station science officer; cosmonaut Mikhail Tyurin, Soyuz commander and flight engineer representing Russia's Federal Space Agency; and U.S. spaceflight participant Charles Simonyi. Soyuz Capsule Nears Landing in Kazakhstan

9 April 19, 2008 - The Soyuz TMA-11 capsule lays on its side on the Kazakh Step. NASA astronaut Peggy Whitson, Expedition 16 commander; Russian Federal Space Agency cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko, flight engineer and Soyuz commander; and South Korean spaceflight participant So-yeon Yi landed in the Soyuz spacecraft. Soyuz Capsule Lands in Central Kazakhstan

10 April 19, 2008 - NASA astronaut Peggy Whitson, Expedition 16 commander, receives assistance leaving a helicopter after landing in the Soyuz TMA-11 spacecraft with Russian Federal Space Agency cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko (out of frame), flight engineer and Soyuz commander; and South Korean spaceflight participant So-yeon Yi (out of frame) on in central Kazakhstan. Whitson and Malenchenko completed 192 days in space and Yi spent 11 days in orbit. Astronaut Assisted to Helicopter After Soyuz Landing

11 Reference Information Text: Creating the International Space Station by David Harland and John Catchpole; Pravis Publishing, 2002 - Comprehensive ISS history and technical information. Commercial Break by Frank Morring, Jr; Aviation Week and Space Technology; April 25, 2008; Volume 168, Number 16, page 28 - includes NASA plans for commercial approach to U.S. re- supply of ISS. Text and Images: Text only: End



14 Soyuz Spacecraft - General Information  The longest serving manned spacecraft in history, the Soyuz (Union), is a series of spacecraft designed for the Soviet space program by the Korolyov Design Bureau in the 1960s, and is still in service today.  The Soyuz TMA spacecraft is a replacement for the Soyuz TM, which was used from May 1986 to November 2002 to take astronauts and cosmonauts to the Russian Mir space station and then to the ISS beginning in November 2000.  The Soyuz TMA increases safety, especially in descent and landing, over the Soyuz TM. - Smaller and more efficient computers and improved displays. - Improved accommodations for crewmembers’ size and weight. - Two new engines reduce landing speed and forces felt by crewmembers and a new entry control system and accelerometers increase landing accuracy. - All the new components in the Soyuz TMA can spend up to one year in space. - Extensive tests of systems and components were conducted on the ground. The Descent Module structural modifications, and seats and seat shock absorbers were tested in hangar drop tests. Landing system modifications, including associated software upgrades, were tested in a series of airdrop tests. - New components and the entire TMA were rigorously tested on the ground, in hangar-drop tests, in airdrop tests and in space before the spacecraft was declared flight-ready.

15 Soyuz Spacecraft - General Information (Continued)  NASA must rely on Soyuz for American human access to space when the space shuttle retires in 2011. - In October 2010, NASA formally released a tender for the second round of competition for privately-developed spacecraft to carry American astronauts to orbit by the middle of the decade. This will replace NASA’s reliance on Soyuz to send astronauts to the ISS. -- NASA is seeking proposals to further advance commercial crew space transportation concepts and mature the design and development of elements, such as launch vehicles and spacecraft. -- Congress passed an NASA authorization bill in September 2010 and President Obama signed the legislation into law. The authorization act provides guidelines for the agency's new budget calling for $1.6 billion for commercial crew development efforts through 2013.

16 Soyuz Spacecraft - Components  Orbital Module - This portion of the Soyuz spacecraft is used by the crew while on orbit during free- flight. - The module has a docking mechanism, hatch, and rendezvous antennas located at the front end. It can serve as an airlock for space walks. It provides the crew life-support systems, water supplies and a toilet.  Descent Module - The Descent Module is where the cosmonauts and astronauts sit for launch, re-entry and landing. All the necessary controls and displays of the Soyuz are located here. -- The module also contains life support supplies and batteries used during descent as well as the primary and backup parachutes and landing rockets. -- It also contains custom-fitted seat liners for each crewmember's couch/seat which are individually molded to fit each person's body.  Instrumentation/Propulsion Module - This module contains three compartments: Intermediate, Instrumentation and Propulsion. -- The intermediate compartment contains oxygen storage tanks and the attitude control thrusters, as well as electronics, communications and control equipment. -- The instrumentation compartment includes the primary guidance, navigation, control and computer systems. -- The propulsion compartment contains the system used to perform maneuvers in orbit. The propulsion system, batteries, solar arrays, radiator and structural connection to the Soyuz launch rocket are located in this compartment.

17 Soyuz Spacecraft - Flight Profile  Launch - The Soyuz spacecraft is boosted to the ISS using the Soyuz rocket. -- The launch facility is located at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. -- Several modifications of the 310 ton Soyuz rocket have been used to insert the Soyuz spacecraft into orbit. --- The Soyuz rocket is a derivative of the R-7 vehicle used to launch the first artificial satellite, Sputnik, and the first man, Yuri Gagrin, into orbit in 1957 and 1961, respectively. -- The spacecraft is protected by a payload fairing during the launch and journey into orbit. --- The payload fairing has an emergency escape system.  Rendezvous and Docking - The Soyuz spacecraft generally takes two days after launch to reach the space station. -- The rendezvous and docking are both automated, although once the spacecraft is within 492 feet of the Station, the Russian Mission Control Center outside Moscow monitors the approach and docking. -- The Soyuz crew has the capability to manually intervene or execute these operations.  Return to Earth - The crew boards Soyuz, the hatch is closed, and the vehicle is undocked from the ISS. - Soyuz separates from the ISS. - The spacecraft is turned engine-forward and the main engine is fired for de-orbiting. - Soyuz orients itself so its long axis is 90 degrees to the flight direction. - The Orbital Module and Instrument/Propulsion Module then separate from the Descent Module.

18 Soyuz Spacecraft - Flight Profile (Continued)  Return to Earth (Continued) ( - The Descent Module re-orients itself tail first and enters the atmosphere. - The TMA-10 and TMA-11 Soyuz crews in 2007 and 2008 were subjected to a back-up re- entry mode called ballistic entry because the Propulsion Module failed to separate from the crew capsule. -- During a ballistic entry, the capsule lift is not adjusted as in a normal entry; the capsule is spun up for stability and it rifles back to Earth on a steeper trajectory, subjecting the crew to more severe deceleration. - The next Soyuz module separation on October 23, 2008 was normal and the ISS crew landing was uneventful. This Soyuz was designated TMA-12 and launched on April 8, 2008. -- During a spacewalk on July 10, 2008, two cosmonauts removed one of five explosive bolts that normally fire to ensure separation of the capsule and Propulsion Module. The bolt is believed to have malfunctioned during the previous two Soyuz reentries. The bolt was returned aboard the TMA-12 vehicle for engineering analysis. -- A software patch was also developed to re-orient the spacecraft, if necessary, to ensure a quick separation. The atmosphere helped the modules to separate and stay in the normal attitude. -- The apparent cause involved insulation on the Soyuz near the suspected explosive bolt that included an ungrounded aluminized layer. -- Electrical arcing is believed to have caused equalization of the voltage in this area and over time caused the bolt not to separate.

19 Soyuz Spacecraft - Flight Profile (Continued)  Return to Earth (Continued) 8 April 2008 -- The solar arrays that provide most of the station's power affected the electrically charged plasma around the ISS. The recent Soyuz problems occurred after a major change in the configuration of the arrays. Another major change happened in March 2009, when a fourth and final set of arrays were added to the starboard side of the ISS. -- Russian engineers redesigned the explosive bolts installed on the Soyuz TMA-13 vehicle that launched October 12, 2008, and is now docked at the station. - Parachutes deploy after reentry and the Descent Module continues toward Earth. - Engines fire reducing the landing speed and the Descent Module lands.

20 Progress Spacecraft - General Information  The Progress resupply vehicle is an automated, unpiloted version of the Soyuz spacecraft that is used to bring supplies and fuel to the ISS. - Progress has carried fuel and supplies to all of the Russian space stations since Salyut 6 in 1977. Long duration space missions require a constant source of supplies and it was impractical to launch them with passengers in the small space available in Soyuz. - Progress has the ability to raise the Station's altitude and control the orientation of the Station using the vehicle’s thrusters.  Both the Progress M and M1 versions have a pressurized Cargo Module to carry supplies, a Refueling Module that holds fuel tanks containing propellant and pressurized gases, and an Instrumentation/Propulsion Module where the Progress systems equipment and thrusters are located. - Progress M1 is the most recent vehicle incorporating a “propellant” modification developed specifically for the ISS. RKK Energia “repackaged” the Refueling Module to increase the amount of fuel delivered to the ISS.  NASA must rely on the Progress spacecraft to resupply the station after the space shuttle retires in 2011. - NASA will base American resupply of the ISS on the untried vehicles of the Commercial Orbital Transportation System (COTS) program and will not buy cargo services from Russia after the vehicles are developed. -- Under the COTS program, SpaceX and Orbital Sciences Corp. are splitting almost $500 million dollars in NASA seed money intended to spur development of a commercial route to the ISS. Commercial Break by Frank Morring, Jr; Aviation Week and Space Technology; April 25, 2008; Volume 168, Number 16, page 28 - includes NASA plans for commercial approach to U.S. resupply of ISS.

21 Progress Spacecraft - Components  Cargo Module - The Cargo Module is similar in construction to the Soyuz Orbital Module carrying up to 3,748 lbs of supplies to the ISS in a pressurized volume of about 212 cubic feet. -- Once the Progress docks with the station, the crew enters the Cargo Module through the docking hatch. -- After the cargo is removed and before the Progress undocks, the crew refills it with trash, unneeded equipment and wastewater, which will burn up with the spacecraft when it re-enters the Earth’s atmosphere. The Cargo Module can hold 2,205 - 3,748 lbs of trash.  Refueling Module - The Refueling Module replaces the Soyuz Descent Module. -- The M1 Refueling Module has eight propellant tanks that can hold up to 3,836 lbs of fuel, depending on how much weight is carried in the Cargo Module. Four of the tanks contain fuel; while the other four contain the fuel’s oxidizer. -- The M Refueling Module has four tanks, two for fuel and two for oxidizer, and two water tanks. The M1 has no water tanks. --- The contents of the fuel and oxidizer tanks can be transferred to the Space Station's own propulsion system through fluid connectors in the docking ring. This propellant can also be used by the Progress' thrusters to boost the Station altitude or to change its orientation or attitude in space.

22 Progress Spacecraft - Components (Continued)  Instrumentation/Propulsion Module - This module is similar in design to the Soyuz Instrumentation/Propulsion. -- The module contains the electronic equipment, or avionics, for the Progress’ systems and sensors. -- Any fuel in this module not used to get Progress to the ISS or for undocking and de- orbit can be used to boost the altitude of the station. Surplus fuel amounts can vary from 408 to 551 lbs.

23 Progress Spacecraft - Flight Profile  Launch - Progress is launched to the ISS from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan aboard a Soyuz rocket. -- A Progress mission is similar to a Soyuz mission. The spacecraft is launched by the Soyuz rocket inside a shroud. --- Unlike Soyuz, there is no launch escape rocket on the shroud since the spacecraft does not carry a crew.  Rendezvous and Docking - The Progress spacecraft spends about two days performing the rendezvous and docks automatically to the Space Station.  Return to Earth - After Progress is filled with trash, the crew closes the hatch and initiates the undocking process. - Once Progress has undocked, the vehicle’s thrusters are fired to maneuver it into an orbit that will send it into the Earth's atmosphere where it will burn up on re-entry over the Pacific Ocean.

Download ppt "International Space Station (ISS) Russian Spacecrafts Soyuz – MannedProgress – Unmanned Launch, On-Orbit & Landing Reference Information Select Image."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google