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Substance-Related and Impulse-Control Disorders

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Presentation on theme: "Substance-Related and Impulse-Control Disorders"— Presentation transcript:

1 Substance-Related and Impulse-Control Disorders
Chapter 11 Abnormal Psychology

2 Impulse-Control Disorders
Irresistible impulse to perform a behavior Anticipation of pleasure/release Harmful/maladaptive consequences

3 Intermittent Explosive Disorder
Acting on violent/aggressive impulses Rule out- personality disorders, psychotic disorders Controversy- used as a legal defense? Use of CBT- identifying “triggers”

4 Kleptomania Strong urge to steal *not out of necessity*
Sense of tension before stealing, relief/pleasure after stealing Often co-morbid with mood disorders

5 Pyromania Fire-setting
Tension and arousal before, release and gratification afterwards Family history Treatment- coping strategies, identifying triggers

6 Pathological Gambling
Pattern of urge and release Common characteristics- denial, impulsivity, *continued optimism* Use of cognitive behavioral interventions

7 Trichotillomania Pulling one’s hair
Hair loss, distress, social impairments, attempts to hide the behavior Stress, trauma, anxiety are risk factors SSRIs, Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy

8 Substance-Related Disorders
Substance Use vs. Abuse- how does the drug affect one’s functioning/life? Substance Dependence- addiction; physiological dependence Tolerance Withdrawal

9 Can you use drugs and not become addicted/dependent?
Individual differences Constellation of risk factors May be difficult to predict

10 Substance Abuse: Some Considerations
Dual Diagnosis Mental health problems co-occurring with addiction

11 Alcohol Use Disorders Brain effects of Alcohol Abuse Complex effects
GABA- anti-anxiety effects of alcohol Glutamate- excitatory effects Serotonin- mood properties- associated with cravings

12 Progression May follow different trajectories for different individuals Drinking at an early age is correlated with later addictions

13 Causes of Substance-Related Disorders
Family studies indicate genetic vulnerabilities Research: initial use of drugs may have more to do with environment/experience, later dependence is more closely linked with genetics

14 Causes of Substance-Related Disorders
Brain areas- a “pleasure pathway” Role of dopamine Role of Positive Reinforcement and Negative Reinforcement

15 Social Factors Influencing Addiction
Exposure to the drug Peer groups The role of context Cultural considerations

16 Multiple Influences Shaping Addiction
Stress and trauma Different pathways and individual differences in the development and progression of addictions

17 Treatment of Addiction
Biological approaches: medication Psychosocial approaches: inpatient and outpatient treatment; AA and 12-step programs; community-based programs Controversy surrounding the teaching of “controlled drinking”

18 Treatment of Addiction
CBT Identification of antecedents and consequences- identifying high risk situations Prevention efforts

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