5 Solar and Earth Capital Solar - energy 99%Earth - resources, support systemsclimate controlair and water purificationrecycling matter (iron, sulfur, nitrogen, etc.)renewable energyrenewable matter resourcesPest and disease controland more.
6 Sustainability Are we living sustainably? A sustainable society manages its economy and population size without exceeding all or part of the planet’s ability to absorb environmental insults, replenish its resources, and sustain human and other forms of life over a specific period (usually a human lifetime of 100 years)
7 Carrying CapacityThe maximum size of a population an area can support and maintain over a period of timeCarrying capacity of the Earth for people is around 12 billion. What may affect that number?
8 Billions of people Time 1615?14131211?109Billions of people8?765432Black Death–the Plague12-5 millionyears800060004000200020002100TimeB.C.A.D.Fig. 1.1, p. 2Hunting andgatheringAgricultural revolutionIndustrialrevolution
9 World Population reached 1 billion in 18042 billion in 1927 (123 years later)3 billion in 1960 (33 years later)4 billion in 1974 (14 years later)5 billion in 1987 (13 years later)6 billion in 1999 (12 years later)World Population May Reach7 billion in 2013 (14 years later)8 billion in 2028 (15 years later)9 billion in 2054 (26 years later)Fig. 1.3, p. 5
10 Doubling TimeRule of 70divide 70 by the percent growth rate and you will find how long it takes the population to double.70/1.43(current growth rate approx.) = 49 years (we started counting in 2000)
11 Populations and Economy Developed - highly industrialized20% population, 85% wealth, 88% resources, 75% pollution and waste, high GNP per capitaDeveloping - low to moderate industrialization80% population, 15% wealth, 12% resources, 15% pollution and waste, low GNP per capita
12 Resources Renewable - can be replenished in a lifetime (wind) Potentially renewable - can be renewable if we change our current habits (soil)Nonrenewable - only a fixed amount on Earth (minerals)
13 Resources Perpetual Nonrenewable Winds, tides, flowing water Fossil fuelsMetallicmineralsNon-metallicmineralsDirectsolarenergy(iron,copper,aluminum)(clay,sand,phosphates)RenewableFreshairFreshwaterFertilesoilPlants andanimals(biodiversity)Fig. 1.11, p. 11
14 Per Captia Ecological Footprint (Hectares of land per person) Country10.9United States5.9The Netherlands1.0IndiaFig. 1.10a, p. 11
15 Total Ecological Footprint (Hectares)Country3 billionhectaresUnited States94 million hectaresThe Netherlands1 billionhectaresIndiaFig. 1.10b, p. 11
16 Major Environmental Degradation to Potentially Renewable Resources UrbanizationSalinization of soilWetland destructionGroundwater depletionLivestock overgrazingPoor soil managementDeforestationPollutionReduction of biodiversity
17 Production rate of resource Area under curveequals the totalamount of theresource.Economic depletion(80% used up)Production rate of resourceTimeFig. 1.12, p. 13
18 Pollutants Point source vs. nonpoint source concentration - ppm, ppb, pptpersistence - degradable, slowly degradable (DDT) or nondegradableAlways less expensive to prevent, instead of trying to clean up.
19 Causes of Environmental Problems Rapid population growthwasteful use of resourcesdegradation of earth’s life support systemspovertyfailure to encourage environmentally and economically sustainable growthlack of full cost pricinghuman urge to “conquer” mother nature
21 Major Environmental Problems Air PollutionWater PollutionBiodiversity DepletionFood Supply ProblemsWaste Production
22 Rapid population growth Unsustainable resource use Poverty Not including the environmental costs of economic goods and services in their market pricesTrying to manage and simplify nature with too little knowledge about how it worksFig. 1.14, p. 15
23 X X = X X = X X = Developing Countries Developed Countries Consumption per person(affluence, A)Technological impact perunit of consumption (T)Environmentalimpact of population (I)Population (P)XX=XX=Developed CountriesFig. 1.15, p. 15
24 What needs to happen to be sustainable Switch to pollution prevention, not cleanupswitch to waste prevention and recyclingprotecting habitats instead of speciesenvironmental restoration of degraded areaslower resource use (less wasteful)ZPG - stabilized population