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AP Environmental Science

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Presentation on theme: "AP Environmental Science"— Presentation transcript:

1 AP Environmental Science
Chapter 1 Environmental Problems, Causes, and Sustainability

2 Exponential vs. Linear Exponential growth is currently occurring with our population doubles quickly, “sneaky” 6.2 billion another billion in years (from 2000) Linear growth is obvious straight line

3 Types of growth J-curve, exponential growth Linear growth


5 Solar and Earth Capital
Solar - energy 99% Earth - resources, support systems climate control air and water purification recycling matter (iron, sulfur, nitrogen, etc.) renewable energy renewable matter resources Pest and disease control and more.

6 Sustainability Are we living sustainably?
A sustainable society manages its economy and population size without exceeding all or part of the planet’s ability to absorb environmental insults, replenish its resources, and sustain human and other forms of life over a specific period (usually a human lifetime of 100 years)

7 Carrying Capacity The maximum size of a population an area can support and maintain over a period of time Carrying capacity of the Earth for people is around 12 billion. What may affect that number?

8 Billions of people Time
16 15 ? 14 13 12 11 ? 10 9 Billions of people 8 ? 7 6 5 4 3 2 Black Death–the Plague 1 2-5 million years 8000 6000 4000 2000 2000 2100 Time B.C. A.D. Fig. 1.1, p. 2 Hunting and gathering Agricultural revolution Industrial revolution

9 World Population reached
1 billion in 1804 2 billion in 1927 (123 years later) 3 billion in 1960 (33 years later) 4 billion in 1974 (14 years later) 5 billion in 1987 (13 years later) 6 billion in 1999 (12 years later) World Population May Reach 7 billion in 2013 (14 years later) 8 billion in 2028 (15 years later) 9 billion in 2054 (26 years later) Fig. 1.3, p. 5

10 Doubling Time Rule of 70 divide 70 by the percent growth rate and you will find how long it takes the population to double. 70/1.43(current growth rate approx.) = 49 years (we started counting in 2000)

11 Populations and Economy
Developed - highly industrialized 20% population, 85% wealth, 88% resources, 75% pollution and waste, high GNP per capita Developing - low to moderate industrialization 80% population, 15% wealth, 12% resources, 15% pollution and waste, low GNP per capita

12 Resources Renewable - can be replenished in a lifetime (wind)
Potentially renewable - can be renewable if we change our current habits (soil) Nonrenewable - only a fixed amount on Earth (minerals)

13 Resources Perpetual Nonrenewable Winds, tides, flowing water Fossil
fuels Metallic minerals Non- metallic minerals Direct solar energy (iron, copper, aluminum) (clay, sand, phosphates) Renewable Fresh air Fresh water Fertile soil Plants and animals (biodiversity) Fig. 1.11, p. 11

14 Per Captia Ecological Footprint (Hectares of land per person)
Country 10.9 United States 5.9 The Netherlands 1.0 India Fig. 1.10a, p. 11

15 Total Ecological Footprint
(Hectares) Country 3 billion hectares United States 94 million hectares The Netherlands 1 billion hectares India Fig. 1.10b, p. 11

16 Major Environmental Degradation to Potentially Renewable Resources
Urbanization Salinization of soil Wetland destruction Groundwater depletion Livestock overgrazing Poor soil management Deforestation Pollution Reduction of biodiversity

17 Production rate of resource
Area under curve equals the total amount of the resource. Economic depletion (80% used up) Production rate of resource Time Fig. 1.12, p. 13

18 Pollutants Point source vs. nonpoint source
concentration - ppm, ppb, ppt persistence - degradable, slowly degradable (DDT) or nondegradable Always less expensive to prevent, instead of trying to clean up.

19 Causes of Environmental Problems
Rapid population growth wasteful use of resources degradation of earth’s life support systems poverty failure to encourage environmentally and economically sustainable growth lack of full cost pricing human urge to “conquer” mother nature

20 Biodiversity Depletion
Habitat destruction Habitat degradation Extinction Air Pollution Global climate change Stratospheric ozone depletion Urban air pollution Acid deposition Outdoor pollutants Indoor pollutants Noise Food Supply Problems Overgrazing Farmland loss and degradation Wetlands loss Overfishing Coastal pollution Soil erosion Soil salinization Soil waterlogging Water shortages Groundwater depletion Loss of biodiversity Poor nutrition Major Environmental Problems Water Pollution Sediment Nutrient overload Toxic chemicals Infectious agents Oxygen depletion Pesticides Oil spills Excess heat Waste Production Solid waste Hazardous waste Fig. 1.13, p. 14

21 Major Environmental Problems
Air Pollution Water Pollution Biodiversity Depletion Food Supply Problems Waste Production

22 Rapid population growth Unsustainable resource use Poverty
Not including the environmental costs of economic goods and services in their market prices Trying to manage and simplify nature with too little knowledge about how it works Fig. 1.14, p. 15

23 X X = X X = X X = Developing Countries Developed Countries Consumption
per person (affluence, A) Technological impact per unit of consumption (T) Environmental impact of population (I) Population (P) X X = X X = Developed Countries Fig. 1.15, p. 15

24 What needs to happen to be sustainable
Switch to pollution prevention, not cleanup switch to waste prevention and recycling protecting habitats instead of species environmental restoration of degraded areas lower resource use (less wasteful) ZPG - stabilized population

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