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Chapter 11 Family Stress and Crisis: Violence among Intimates.

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1 Chapter 11 Family Stress and Crisis: Violence among Intimates

2 Violence Policy Center’s annual report on domestic homicide. South Carolina: #1 61 women were killed by men. 56 were killed by someone they knew. 33 were slain by husbands, ex-husbands, common-law husbands and boyfriends, the report said. 4 were killed by strangers. The report also found: 17 were killed with guns 12 were killed with knives 7 were killed by bodily force 3 were killed with a blunt object

3 The Nature of Stress and Crisis Crisis: A critical change of events that disrupts the functioning of a person’s life Family Stress: Tensions that test a family’s emotional resources Acute Stress: Short-term stress Chronic Stress: Long-term stress

4 The Ten Most Common Family Stressors

5 Responses to Stress General Adaptation Syndrome: Predictable pattern body follows when coping with stress, includes: Alarm reaction –Brain perceives stressor & sends a message –Fight or Flight Resistance Maintains elevated state of alert Exhaustion Depression, fatigue, frequent headaches, panic attacks, insomnia, and eating disorders

6 Social Readjustment Rating Scale A scale of major life events over the past year Each is assigned a point value

7 The Nature of Stress and Crisis Patterns of Family Crises (3 phases) 1. Event that causes the crisis 2. Period of disorganization that follows 3. Reorganization that takes place afterwards

8 Five Patterns: Effects of Stress/Crises on Family Functioning

9 The Nature of Stress and Crisis Coping or Not: The ABC-X Models ABC-X Model: Model to help understand variation in ways that families cope with stress and crisis Double ABC-X Model: Model to help understand effects of the accumulation of stresses and crises –And how families adapt to them

10 ABC-X Model of Family Stress and Crisis

11 Double ABC-X Model of Family Crisis: Pile-Up

12 Violence among Intimates Violence is a social problem because: It affects large numbers of people Violence is not completely random

13 Intimate Partner Violence Violence between those who are physically and sexually intimate, such as spouses or partners Physical Economic Sexual Psychological abuse

14 Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS) Based on how people deal with disagreements in relationships

15 National Domestic Violence Hotline (2013) More than 1 in 3 women (35.6%) More than 1 in 4 men (28.5%) Have experienced: Rape Physical violence, and/or Stalking by an intimate partner in their lifetime.

16 Approximately 1 in 4 women (24.3%) 1 in 7 men (13.8%) Experienced severe physical violence by an intimate partner Men face the threat and the reality of domestic violence Challenges to overcoming abuse and maltreatment.

17 Intimate Partner Violence by Gender


19 Women Raped or Physically Assaulted in Lifetime by Race/Ethnicity

20 Lifetime Reports of Stalking Among Female Victims by Type of Tactic Experienced (2010)

21 Physical and Mental Health Outcomes among Those Who Have Been Victims of Rape, Stalking, or Intimate Partner Violence, 2010

22 Intimate Partner Violence Coping with Violence Learned Helplessness: –Psychological condition of feeling: –Helpless –Having no control Caused by repeated abuse

23 Battered Women’s Syndrome Subcategory of post-traumatic stress syndrome Used to describe someone who has been the victim of consistent and/or severe domestic violence Four Stages:

24 1. Denial: The first stage occurs when a victim of abuse is unable to admit and acknowledge that they are being subjected to domestic violence. 2. Guilt: Feelings of extreme guilt and disgrace. Believe they have caused the abuse

25 Battered Women’s Syndrome 3. Enlightenment: Victim recognizes that they are not to blame for the abuse that they are experiencing Understand that no one deserves to be subjected to domestic violence

26 Battered Women’s Syndrome 4. Responsibility: Once a victim recognizes domestic violence they are suffering is fault of their abuser Only a matter of time before victims understand importance of escaping their environment. Essential to plan their escape

27 Lifetime Reports of Sexual Violence Among Female Victims by Type of Perpetrator, 2010

28 Child Abuse Forms: Neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and emotional maltreatment People of all ages abuse children –Younger parents are more likely to do so Abuse leaves nearly 18,000 children permanently disabled every year.

29 Most Common Types of Child Abuse

30 Perpetrator’s Relationship to the Victim

31 Child Abuse and Neglect Sex Trafficking: An industry in which children are coerced, kidnapped, sold, or deceived into sexual encounters Trafficking is the most severe form of child abuse. As many as 1.4 million children per year are enslaved and moved across international borders as sex slaves.

32 Elder Abuse Can include: Physical abuse Sexual abuse Psychological abuse Financial or material exploitation Neglect

33 Explanations for Violence among Intimates Micro-Level Explanations Intergenerational Transmission of Violence: A cycle of violence that is passed down to dependents Stress: Unemployment, poor health, or financial difficulties.

34 Explanations for Violence among Intimates Macro-Level Explanations Patriarchy Cultural Norms Support Violence Norms of Family Privacy A Synthesis: Power and Control Men who assault partners are exerting their domination, power, and control over women.

35 Power and Control Wheel

36 The Public’s Response Violence and the Law Domestic Violence Shelters Defined as a temporary safe house for a woman (with or without children) Escaping an abusive relationship

37 Treatment Programs for Abusers Challenge of teaching anger management is that many abusers are actually quite good at managing their anger They know not to explode in public Not to leave bruises Know what to say afterwards so that their partner will not leave them

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