Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

BA 351 Managing Organizations

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "BA 351 Managing Organizations"— Presentation transcript:

1 BA 351 Managing Organizations
Managing the Structure and Design of Organizations

2 Organization Structure
Formal system of relationships that determine: Lines of authority – who reports to whom. Tasks assigned to individuals and units – who does what tasks and with which department. Dimensions of organization structure: Vertical dimension Horizontal dimension

3 The Vertical Dimension of Organization Structure
Unity of Command – a subordinate should have only one direct supervisor. A decision can be traced back from the subordinates who carry it out to the manager who made it.

4 The Vertical Dimension of Organization Structure (continued)
Authority – The formal right of a manager to make decisions, give orders, and expect the orders to be carried out. Line Authority Staff Authority Responsibility – the manager’s duty to perform an assigned task. Accountability – the manager (or other employee) with authority and responsibility must be able to justify results to a manager at a higher level in the organizational hierarchy.

5 The Vertical Dimension of Organization Structure (continued)
Line Authority entitles a manager to directly control the work of subordinates by hiring, discharging, evaluating, and rewarding them line managers hold positions that contribute directly to the strategic goals of the organization part of the chain of command Staff Authority the right to provide advice, recommend, and counsel line managers and others in the organization staff managers direct line managers

6 Yes or No Can a manager hold line authority and staff authority at the same time?

7 The Vertical Dimension of Organization Structure (continued)
Organization Level Activities Required Skills Talk with insiders and outsiders about Vision Strategy Other major issues Conceptualizing Communicating understanding the perspectives of others Senior Managers Help middle managers Define and redefine their roles Manage conflict Listening conflict management Negotiating Motivating Create and maintain the organization’s culture Interpersonal influence

8 The Vertical Dimension of Organization Structure (continued)
Organization Level Activities Required Skills Champion’ strategic ideas Help firm to remain adaptive Networking Communicating Influencing Process data and information for use by other individuals Analysis Communication Middle Managers Deliver strategic initiatives to lower-level managers Communicating Motivating Understanding values Managing stress

9 The Vertical Dimension of Organization Structure (continued)
Organization Level Activities Required Skills Coaching firm’s associates (workers) Teaching Listening Understanding personalities Managing stress Removing obstacles for associates Deal with personal problems of associates Negotiating Influencing others Counseling Understanding personalities Lower-level Managers Design jobs, teams structures and reward systems Negotiating Group dynamics

10 The Vertical Dimension of Organization Structure (continued)
Span of control – the feature of vertical structure that outlines: The number of subordinates who report to a manager. The number of managers. The layers of management within an organization. Smaller span – fewer employees supervised by a manager – creates a tall vertical organizational structure Larger span – greater number of employees supervised – creates a flat organizational structure

11 The Vertical Dimension of Organization Structure (continued)
Centralization – the location of decision authority at the top of the organization hierarchy. Decentralization – the location of decision authority at lower levels in the organization. Formalization – the degree of written documentation that is used to direct and control employees.

12 The Horizontal Dimension of Organization Structure
The organization structure element that is the basis for: Dividing work into specific jobs and tasks. Assigning jobs into units such as departments or teams. Departmentalization: Functional Divisional Matrix

13 Functional Departmental Structure

14 Advantages and Disadvantages of the Functional Approach
Decision authority is centralized at the top of the organization hierarchy Career paths foster professional identity with the business function High degree of efficiency Economies of scale help develop specialized expertise in employees Disadvantages Communication barriers Conflict between departments Coordination of products and services is difficult Diminished responsiveness to customers’ needs Employees identify with functional department goals and not organization goals or needs of the customer

15 Divisional Organization Structure
President Computer Division Software Division Consulting Source Division Production Production Production Marketing Marketing Marketing Finance Finance Finance

16 Geographic-Based Organization Structure

17 Advantages and Disadvantages of the Divisional Approach
Coordination among different business functions Improved and speedier service Accountability for performance Development of general manager and executive skills Disadvantages Duplication of resources by two or more departments Reduced specialization in occupational skills Competition among divisions

18 Coordination Mechanisms
Meetings Organization-wide Reward Systems Task Forces and Teams Liaison Roles Integrating Managers Organizational Culture

19 Video – Destination CEO Jim McCann
After Jim McCann started Flora Plenty, what key strategic events triggered a change in the structure and design of the organization?

20 Organization Design The selection of an organization structure that best fits the strategic goals of the business. Basic organization designs: Mechanistic Organic Boundaryless These designs incorporate vertical and horizontal structural elements.

21 Organization Design (continued)
As business strategy changes, so do the structural elements of organization design. Strategic factors that affect the choices of organization design: Organization capabilities Technology Organization size Environmental turbulence

22 Mechanistic, Organic, and Boundaryless Designs
Emphasis on teams that also may cross organization boundaries Emphasis on teams Emphasis on individuals working independently Broadly defined flexible jobs Narrowly defined specialized jobs Decentralized decision authority Centralized decision authority Informal communication Top-down communication Low formalization High formalization Collaboration (vertical, horizontal, customers, suppliers, competitors) Collaboration (both vertical and horizontal) Rigid hierarchical relationships Boundaryless Organic Mechanistic

23 Video – One Smooth Stone
Demonstrates: Economic importance of innovation. Why innovation is important for business success Illustrates choosing an organizational structure and the reasons behind that choice.

24 This demonstrates the that each individual is accountable for
Coordination Responsibility Centralization Formalization At One Smooth Stone, there are no real business units, only a group of individuals who each have unique talents to offer the company in pursuit of client goals. Still, these individuals are interdependent and are required to meet deadlines and objectives as agreed upon by the group, to contribute to a common goal.

25 Redesigning Organizations
Merger Acquisition Divestiture Downsizing


Download ppt "BA 351 Managing Organizations"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google