2 Case Study In depth investigation of particular person’s behaviour. Usually with brain – damaged patients.May involve observation, diagnostic tests, interviews examination of psychological and medical records of the person.Provide considerable detail on a program but little comparability as no two cases are exactly the same.EG) Phineas Gage
3 ADVANTAGESLIMITATIONS• Non-invasive• No health risks, therefore can be used with a patient a number of times• Provides knowledge about particular psychological phenomenon• No two studies are identical, therefore, does not provide normative data about typical behaviour• Insights from previous studies may be misleading• Time-consuming• Does not provide information about inner brain structures• Does not provide information about specific areas of brain activity
4 Brain Stimulation (ESB) Brain Stimulation and recording TechniquesBrain stimulation (electrically or Chemically)Electrical current delivered by fine electrode to stimulate brain cellsUsed to assess functions of particular areas of brain (i.e. brain mapping)May also affect nearby areas of the brain
5 ADVANTAGESLIMITATIONS• Provides information about sensory, motor and emotional responses associated with particular brain areas• Useful in studying the relationship between brain areas and the activities they control• Invasive and has potential health risks because it requires the removal of the skull• Does not provide information about inner brain structures• Does not provide normative data, as no two brains have exactly the same structure
6 Electrocenphalogram (EEG) Records overall electrical activity of the brain (i.e. brainwaves)Can be used to assess some brain- related disordersProvides very limited information on brain structure and function
7 ADVANTAGESLIMITATIONS• Non-invasive• No health risks, therefore can be used with a patient a number of times• Provides a useful average measure of whole brain activity• Provides information about the pattern of brainwave activity during normal waking consciousness and altered states of consciousness• Does not provide information about inner brain structures• Does not provide information about specific areas of brain activityDoes not give us a visual picture of the brain only brain waves.
8 Neuro-Imaging Techniques Computerised Tomography (CT)Computer enhanced x-ray images of cross-sections of the brain damage.Provides useful information on brain structure but not function.
9 ADVANTAGES:LIMITATIONS:• Non-invasive• Least expensive of the brain imaging techniques•Provides information about brain structures• X-rays pose health risks so use must be limited• Does not provide information about functional brain activity
10 Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Cells resonated by magnetic waves to produce image of brain.Gives more detail than CT scan and can assess low-level structural damage.Provides us with a sagittal(side) view of the brain, whichthe CT does not.
11 ADVANTAGELIMITATION• Non-invasive• No health risks, therefore can be used with a patient a number of times• Provides information about brain structures• Provides more precise information than a CT scan, can produce a side image as well as a front image unlike the CT scan.• Does not provide information about brain activity over time• Expensive.Can not be used by people with metallic implants such as pacemakers.
12 FUNCTIONAL NEUROIMAGING Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Maps brain function and activity via brain neuron’s uptake of radioactive glucoseProvides detailed images of the structure and function of brain in colourUsed to record levels ofactivity in parts of the brainwhile the patient is performinga cognitive or behavioural task
13 ADVANTAGESLIMITATIONS• Provides an image of brain activity, and very detailed knowledge about function.• Provides a functional 3D image of brain structures and their activity-level during specific activities• Use of X-rays and radioactive materials pose a possible health threat, so use must be limited• Images of brain structures not very clear.Mildly invasive due to the injection of radio active substance• Expensive
14 Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) Detects change in oxygen levels of blood flow in a functioning brainProvides detailed images of structure and function of brain in colourMore sensitive than PET to rapid changes in neuronal activity so information on function is more precise.
15 ADVANTAGELIMITATION• Non-invasive• No health risks, therefore can be used with a patient a number of times• Provides clear 3D images of brain structures and their activity over time• Clearly identifies which brain areas are involved in mental activities and movementNo X-Rays or radioactive material used.• More expensive than other devicesCannot be used with patients who are claustrophobic (afraid of confined spaces) or who wear metallic implants such as pacemakers.
16 Can you pick the following brain recording techniques???