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Sexually Transmitted Infections and HIV/ AIDS

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Presentation on theme: "Sexually Transmitted Infections and HIV/ AIDS"— Presentation transcript:

1 Sexually Transmitted Infections and HIV/ AIDS
Chapter 25 Sexually Transmitted Infections and HIV/ AIDS

2 Lesson 1 The Risk of STIs

3 STIs and STDs Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)
Also known as… Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) Infectious diseases spread from person to person through sexual contact

4 STDs: The Hidden Epidemic
Epidemics Occurances of diseases in which many people in the same place at the same time are affected Many people with STDs are asymptomatic – without symptoms High-Risk Behavior and STDs Being sexually active with more than one person Engaging in unprotected sex Selecting high-risk partners Using alcohol and other drugs

5 The Consequences of STDs and Preventing STDs Through Abstinence
Some STDs are incurable Some STDs cause cancer Some STDs can cause complications that affect the ability to reproduce Some STDs can be passed from an infected female to her child before, during or after birth Abstinence Direct cause and effect The deliberate decision to avoid harmful behaviors, including sexual activity before marriage and the use of tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs

6 Lesson 2 Common STIs

7 Human Papillomavirus HPV, is a virus that can cause genital warts or asymptomatic infection Considered the most common STD in the U.S. Most types of HPV are asymptomatic Pap test and other medical examinations to detect changes associated with HPV Almost all cases of cervical cancer are caused by certain types of HPV

8 Genital Warts Are pink or reddish warts with cauliflower like tops that appear on the genitals, the vagina or the cervix, one to three months after infection from HPV Highly contagious Spread by any form of sexual contact Complications of HPV and genital warts can result in cervical cancer and cancer of the penis

9 PID Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
Caused by untreated chlamydia or gonorrhea in females Can lead to reproductive damage by causing obstruction and scarring of the fallopian tubes, resulting in involuntary infertility

10 Chlamydia A bacterial infection that affects the reproductive organs of both males and females It is asymptomatic When symptoms may be present females may have vaginal discharge, burning upon urination, or abdominal pain Often goes untreated until serious complications occur Can cause PID and lead to chronic pelvic pain or infertility

11 Genital Herpes An STD caused by the herpes simplex virus
Two types of HSV: Type 1 usually causes cold sores Type 2 usually causes genital sores Medication can relieve the symptoms, but cannot cure herpes infection It is not true that the virus can only be spread when sore are present Once infected, the virus remains in the body for life

12 Gonorrhea A bacterial STD that usually affects mucous membranes
50 percent of females have no symptoms Those who do experience symptoms may have vaginal discharge and pain or burning upon urination Can be treated with antibiotics Can be reinfected If untreated, lead to infertility Spread to the bloodstream and cause permanent damage to the joints

13 Trichomoniasis An STD caused by a microscopic protozoan that results in infections of the vagina, urethra, and bladder Females may have no symptoms Vaginitis Inflammation of the vagina characterized by discharge, odor, irritation, and itching

14 Syphilis An STD that attacks many parts of the body and is caused by a small bacterium called a spirochet First sign is a painless reddish sore called a chancre The sore will heal on its own, but if not treated it spreads through the blood to other parts of the body Eventually the disease can damage internal organs

15 Seeking Treatment Figure 25.2
Other common STDs Only a health care professional can prescribe treatment By law it is kept confidential Social obligation to prevent the spread of infection

16 Lesson 3 HIV and AIDS

17 AIDS and HIV AIDS 1981 an outbreak of a rare form of skin cancer known as Kaposi’s sarcoma was reported About a year later the CDC labeled the disease acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) A disease in which the immune system of the patient is weakened HIV 1983 A virus that attacks the immune system Cause of AIDS In 2000, AIDS was the fifth leading cause of death among adults from 25 to 44

18 Teens at Risk Teens have one of the fastest growing rates of HIV infection New AIDS cases are declining however there has been no decline in the number of diagnosed HIV infections among youth from 13 to 24 years old HIV can be prevented through ABSTINENCE from sexual activity and from injecting drugs

19 HIV and the Human Body HIV attaches to cell surface
Virus core enters cell and goes to nucleus Virus makes a copy of its genetic material New virus assembles at cell surface New virus breaks away from host cell

20 HIV and the Human Body cont.,
Lymphocytes are white blood cells Help your body fight pathogens Body has billions of them Produced in bone marrow and found in blood, lymph nodes, appendix, tonsils and adenoids HIV invades certain cells of the immune system, including T cells, which help other lymphoocytes identify and destroy pathogens The virus takes over the cells and cause them to produce new copies The new viruses infect other cells and the process repeats itself

21 HIV and the Human Body cont 2.,
As the number of viruses increase the number of T cells decrease and the immune system becomes less capable of preventing infection and cancer Opportunistic infections Infections that occur in individuals who do not have healthy immune systems With a weakened immune system the infected individual suffers one illness after another HIV infection is progressive It destroys the cells of the immune system over many months or years Being infected with HIV does not mean the person has AIDS AIDS is the advanced stage of HIV

22 How HIV Is Transmitted HIV organism lives inside cells and body fluids
It does not survive in air A person is not at risk of HIV infection by working next to or being in the same classroom as a person who is infected HIV can be transmitted from an infected person to an uninfected person only in certain ways Blood, semen, vaginal secretion, and breast milk Sexual intercourse Sharing needles Mother to baby

23 Treatment for HIV and AIDS
Lesson 4 Treatment for HIV and AIDS

24 Stages of HIV Infection
Develops over the course of years Person is infectious to others IMMEDIATELY after contracting the virus Symptoms develop about 3 to 6 weeks after becoming infected – fever, rash, headaches, body aches & swollen glands Symptoms disappear within 1 to 4 weeks & person enters the ASYMPTOMATIC stage A period of time in which a person with HIV has no symptoms

25 Stages of HIV Infection cont.,
No signs of illness may appear from a period of 6 months to 10 years or more In the meantime, the virus continues to grow and continues to be transmitted if the person is sexually active In the re-occurring SYMPTOMATIC stage, the person begins to have symptoms due to a severe drop in immune cells Finally, the 3rd stage is AIDS where more serious symptoms occur: severely damaged immune system, opportunistic infections, dementia and death

26 How is HIV Transmitted? Through sexual intercourse and/or oral sex
Must be an exchange of bodily fluids Can also enter a partners bloodstream through tiny cuts in the body that come in contact with the HIV infected blood There is no proof that HIV has been transmitted through insect bites or kissing By sharing needles Injecting drugs with contaminated needles directly into the bloodstream, under skin or into muscle Through a blood transfusion

27 Your Breast Health

28 Simple Ways to Lower Your Risk, cont.,
Controllable High fat diet Exercise Alcohol Smoking Uncontrollable Growing up on a high fat diet Family history Aging Age at first menstruation Late menopause Age at birth of first child/having no children Gender Environment

29 Early Detection Saves Lives
Three methods for early detection Mammography Clinical Breast Examination Breast Self Exam (BSE)

30 Mammography Baseline at 35, annually at 40
Most effective screening test for detecting breast cancer early X-rays of the breast and can detect lumps much smaller than the size of a pea Every six months

31 Clinical Breast Exam (CSE)
Annually beginning at 18 Trained clinician can help detect changes Make sure your clinician exams you sitting up and laying down, and examines all of your breast tissue

32 Breast Self Exam (BSE) Begin approximately at the age of 18
Perform once a month at the END of your period so your breasts are less sensitive and your exam will be more comfortable Lay on a flat, comfortable surface and with fry hands Stand up in front of a mirror and look for changes in color, size and shape

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