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Site factors Site – the physical land on which a settlement is built Situation – the settlement in relation to its surrounding area.

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Presentation on theme: "Site factors Site – the physical land on which a settlement is built Situation – the settlement in relation to its surrounding area."— Presentation transcript:


2 Site factors Site – the physical land on which a settlement is built Situation – the settlement in relation to its surrounding area

3 Different sites Wet point sites – the site of a settlement close to a water supply such as a spring line settlement on a chalk escarpment

4 Different sites Dry-point site – the site of a settlement which avoids land prone to flooding such as a gravel mould or the valley side Dry-point site - Ely

5 Different sites Bridging points – a settlement located where a river is forded or bridged

6 Defensive site This type of site was originally selected as it offered people protection Durham – the meander (bend of the river) acts a natural barrier Edinburgh

7 Different sites A site that is particularly good for resources – fuel supply (wood), food supplies, building materials Shelter and aspect – in Britain it is an advantage to be sheltered from the strong prevailing south-westerly and cold northerly winds, and to have a south-facing aspect, as this gives most sunshine, heat and light (Torquay)

8 Nodal points This site is where two crossroads join up and a town develops in the middle. They can develop into ‘trading centres’. Towns near seas and rivers could also develop into trading centres Gap towns – these develop on flat land in between two hilly pieces of land

9 Site factors today Many of the site factors in the past are now insignificant today as modern technology means we can build anywhere we want to It now comes now down to a purely economic argument

10 Settlement hierarchy

11 Function Function of a settlement – this describe what a settlement does Different functions – commercial, administrative, residential, tourism, market towns, mining towns, industrial/manufacturing, ports, route centres, cultural/religious

12 Functions – change over time Functions change over time and may lose their significance over time. New ones may become important after time.

13 Settlement shape - dispersed

14 Settlement pattern - linear

15 Settlement pattern - nucleated

16 Sphere of influence This is the area served by a settlement, shop or service

17 The Burgess model

18 Limitations of the Burgess model It assumes that the landscape of cities do not change Physical features - land may restrict growth of certain sectors Commuter villages - commuter villages defy the theory since they are located far away from the city Commuter villages Shopping centres, industry and science parks being located outside the city Urban regeneration and gentrification - more expensive property can be found in 'low class' housing areasgentrification Many new housing estates were built on the edges of cities in Britain The model does not work well for cities are made up of towns joining together

19 LEDC land use model

20 Characteristics of Urban zones See video link to youtube video

21 Urbanisation This is the increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas

22 The problems of urbanisation – New York - MEDC High cost of land Urban decay Immigrants Traffic congestion Unemployment Crime Pollution Water Supply Climate Overcrowded and poor quality housing

23 Newcastle Problems The decline of the ship building and coal mining industry Unemployment – 34% Urban decay Large proportion of single mothers Graffiti Crime Litter

24 Newcastle Solutions The Tyne and Wear Development Corporation (TWDC) (1987) Invested millions of pounds Acquired and cleared derelict land, built new infrastructure, setting up schemes with the private sector to bring new homes and amenities Four themes Created new business districts for modern office developments and industrial estates Increasing employment by giving grants to existing and new businesses, and by introducing training programmes Reviving the riversides as a place to live by providing new homes, cultural, shopping and leisure facilities Improving the environment by reclaiming land, landscaping, restoring historic buildings and creating parks, walkways and cycleways

25 TWDC - continued Newcastle business park – cost £140 million – built on a derelict industrial estate – British airways – employs 4,000 people Newcastle arena – 10,000 seat stadium for major sporting events and music concerts The Hanging Gardens – a landscaped garden Newcastle quayside – transformed into a new business quarter with high-quality offices, pubs, restaurants, leisure facilities, new homes and a hotel – cost £170 million

26 The West End City Challenge (TWECC) Set up in 1991 and sent £37.5 million Aims Create new jobs Improve educational achievements Support training and employment opportunities

27 The West End City Challenge (TWECC) Alarm clocks for seven year olds so they get to school on time CCTV to prevent crime John Marley Centre – training for 1,000 students Improvement and renovation of older housing notably in Scotswood Village Extending the breweries – created 280 jobs

28 Shanty Towns Sao Paulo Problems Poor quality housing Very cramped No sewer Lack of clean water Lack of electricity

29 Shanty town solutions The council provided the residents with the necessary materials to improve their lives – the residents build new houses for themselves – Self-help schemes Residents given: Breeze-blocks Sinks Roofing tiles Water tank Electricity wires Bathroom with toilet Underground sewers Improved roads and streets

30 Advantages of self-help schemes Done in stages Can create community spirit The cost of building is fairly cheap so more houses can be provided

31 Urban Sprawl Urban sprawl – the spread of towns and cities into the rural-urban fringe and countryside Buildings in the rural-urban fringe: Science parks Golf courses Out of town shopping centres Football grounds By-passes Hobby farming – people owning small pieces of land which spread into the rural-urban fringe Housing estates

32 Preventing urban sprawl Green belts – Green land in the countryside which surrounds many towns and cities. This is often protected and should not be built upon Brownfield sites – these are derelict industrial sites in cities which are then cleared and new building generally residential are built. This reduces the need to build into the countryside

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