Presentation on theme: "Africa 50’s & 60’s –many new nations won independence Unity=hard-many ethnic groups. –Dif. Languages and religions-divided people Post independence-single."— Presentation transcript:
Africa 50’s & 60’s –many new nations won independence Unity=hard-many ethnic groups. –Dif. Languages and religions-divided people Post independence-single ethnic groups dominated nation’s govt. and economy. –Often at expense of other
South Africa Struggles for Freedom South Africa’s=different. 1910-achieved self-rule Mass inequality-freedom limited to whites Blacks couldn’t vote-had majority Whites-less than 20% of pop-controlled economy and govt. –Used this to keep blacks “down”
Apartheid Divides South Africa 48-Govt. creates apartheid. All S.A. registered by race (black, white, colored- mixed, and Asian) –Claimed “each could develop its own culture” –Reality-protected white control Blacks-like foreigners-marriages banned btw races, segregated restaurants, beaches, schools etc. –They were paid less, couldn’t own land in most areas.
Fighting for Majority Rules African National Congress-opposed apartheid led struggle for majority rule. Organized marches, boycotts, and strikes. Sharpeville incident-police shot 69 men/women/children during peaceful protest. ANC is outlawed
With ANC outlawed shifts from non- violent to armed struggle. Nelson Mandela-a leader of ANC –Went underground –Mobilized young S.A. to peacefully resist apartheid laws. –As violence grew against the ANC-Mandela joins militant group
Early 1960’s-Mandela arrested-life in prison (27 years spent) –Remains popular Demands for end to apartheid increases Many countries (inc. US) imposed economic sanctions on South Africa Outside and inside pressures convince SA President F.W. de Klerk to end apartheid 1990-lifted ban on ANC and freed Mandela 1994-all SA’s could vote elected Mandela as 1 st Pres of truly democratic SA. –“let us build together” Healed countries wounds –Welcomed old enemies into govt. inc. whites
"Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world."
Challenges Ahead 94-SA faced huge challenges Felt with majority rule life would change. However, gap between whites and blacks was large. Whites owned 75% of the land Poverty level and unemployment=high for Blacks Increase in crime rates in cities and shantytowns.
South Africa’s Neighbors Face Long Conflict Apartheid govt. –Supported rule of white minority in Namibia and Zimbabw –Portugal retained Angola and Mozambique leads to nationalist guerilla resistance-15 years later Portugal w/draws from Africa. –Britain and France gave up African possessions
Civil Wars continue Fueled by Cold war SA and US saw new nations as threats due to their ties to SU or ANC Both US and SA aid rebel group fighting new. Govt. in Angola. (stops 2002) SA aids rebels in Mozambique. (stops 92)
Ethnic Conflicts Kill Millions Rwanda and Burundi Face Deadly Divisions After independence-ethnic conflicts will plague many African nations. Rwanda divided-Hutus=majority Tutsis=minority that dominated Spoke same language-different traditions. 94-Hutu officials urged civilians to kill their Tutsi and moderate Hutu neighbors. About 800,000 slaughtered. 3 million of 8 million Rwandans lost their homes to destructive mobs.
Help please!!! International community failed to act. Finally after several months, France sends troops in to stop genocide. UN-gives assistance to help rebuild. Accused put on trial in international courts Pledge of World leaders to stop ANY future genocide. Burundi-similar history-not as severe as Rwanda but guerilla fighters fought for longer-signed peace treaty in 2000-though sporadic fighting continued after.
Sudan’s Ethnic Strife Post independence Arab Muslim North dominated the Non-Muslim South. –Tried to impose Islamic law in non-Muslim areas –Rebel groups in South battled for decades. –War, drought, famine, killed millions and forced many to leave their homes. –2004-Sudanese govt. and S. rebels cease-fire. –Fighting worsened in some areas-esp. Darfur. –Janjaweed-Backed by govt. Arab militias burned villages and forced thousands from their homes many starved to death –Fighting moves into Chad. –US UN and other nations send aid but couldn’t stop genocide. –Death toll over 200,000-pressure mounts on Sudan to accept UN peacekeepers..