2 Besides chapt.11 and 12 concepts, you should also be able to : Contrast leadership and management.Understand traditional leadership theories.Understand transactional, transitional and visionary leadership.Describe contingency model.Understand E.I. theory.Understand managerial grid.Learn about charismatic leadersLearn how to become a transformational leader.L E A R N I N G O B J E C T I V E S
3 LeadershipThe ability to positively influence people and systems to have a meaningful impact and achieve results
5 Trust and LeadershipLeadershipTRUST and INTEGRITY
6 Traditional leadership theories The trait approach--Involves discerning how to be a leader by examining the characteristics and methods of recognized leaders.b) The behavioral approach--Attempts to determine the types of leadership behaviors that lead to successful task performance and employee satisfaction.c) The contingency approach--Holds that there is no universal approach to leadership. Rather, effective leadership behavior depends on situational factors (i.e. who is leading, who is led, and what is the situation) that may change over time.d) The role approach--Suggests that leaders perform certain roles depending on the situation.
7 Characteristics of Successful Leaders Trait or CharacteristicDriveHonesty and integrityLeadership motivationSelf-confidenceCognitive abilityKnowledge of the businessCreativityFlexibilityDescriptionDesire for achievement; ambition; high energy;tenacity; initiativeTrustworthy; reliable; openDesire to exercise influence over others to reach shared goalsTrust in own abilitiesIntelligence; ability to integrate and interpret large amounts of informationKnowledge of industry, relevant technical mattersOriginalityAbility to adapt to needs of followers andrequirements of situation-13
8 Charismatic Leadership Key Characteristics:Vision and articulationPersonal riskEnvironmental sensitivitySensitivity to follower needsUnconventional behavior
10 Situational Leadership Theory: Its Basic Dimensions High(unwillingto do job)Selling works best(followers are neitherwilling nor able to dothe job)Participating works best(followers are able todo the job but requireemotional support)(amount of support required)Relationship BehaviorDelegating works best(followers)are willing todo the job, and knowhow to go about it)Telling works best(followers are willingto do the job, but don’tknow how to do it)Low(willingto do job)Task Behavior (amount of guidance required)High(unable to do job)Low(able to do job).9
11 Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory Follower readiness: ability and willingnessLeader: decreasing need for support and supervision
12 The Managerial Grid High 9,9 pattern Team management- the ideal style “Country club”management98765,5 patternMiddle-of-the-roadmanagementConcern for People5431,1 patternImpoverishedmanagement29,1 patternTask management1LowLowConcern for ProductionHighFig. 8-14
13 Transactional and Transformational Leadership Contingent RewardManagement by Exception (active)Management by Exception (passive)Laissez-FaireCharismaInspirationIntellectual StimulationIndividual Consideration
14 Emotional Intelligence and Leadership Effectiveness Elements of Emotional Intelligence:Self-awarenessSelf-managementSelf-motivationEmpathySocial skills
15 Guidelines for Becoming a Transformational Leader (cont’d) SuggestionBuild confidence by recognizing smallaccomplishments toward the goal.Celebrate successes and accomplishments.Take dramatic action to symbolize keyorganizational values.Set an example; actions speak louderthan words.ExplanationIf a group experiences early success, it willbe motivated to continue working hard.Formal or informal ceremonies are useful forcelebrating success, thereby buildingoptimism and commitment.Visions are reinforced by things leaders doto symbolize them. For example, one leaderdemonstrated concern for quality bydestroying work that was not up to standards.Leaders serve as role models. If they wantfollowers to make sacrifices, for example,they should do so themselves.6
16 Guidelines for Becoming a Transformational Leader SuggestionDevelop a vision that is bothclear and highly appealing to followers.Articulate a strategy for bringing thatvision to life.State your vision clearly and promoteit to others.Show confidence and optimism aboutyour vision.Express confidence in followers’capacity to carry out the strategy.ExplanationA clear vision will guide followers towardachieving organizational goals and make them feel good about doing so.Don’t present an elaborate plan; rather, state the best path toward achieving the mission.Visions must not only be clear but madecompelling, such as by using anecdotes.If a leader lacks confidence about success,followers will not try very hard to achieve thatvisionFollowers must believe that they are capable of implementing a leader’s vision. Leadersshould build followers’ self-confidence..5
17 Finding and Creating Effective Leaders SelectionReview specific requirements for the job.Use tests that identify personal traits associated with leadership, measure self-monitoring, and assess emotional intelligence.Conduct personal interviews to determine candidate’s fit with the job.TrainingRecognize the all people are not equally trainable.Teach skills that are necessary for employees to become effective leaders.Provide behavioral training to increase the development potential of nascent charismatic employees.