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Introduction to Plants AP Biology Invading Land Conditions to overcome: buoyancy of water is missing, no longer bathed in a nutrient solution, air dries.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Plants AP Biology Invading Land Conditions to overcome: buoyancy of water is missing, no longer bathed in a nutrient solution, air dries."— Presentation transcript:


2 Introduction to Plants AP Biology

3 Invading Land Conditions to overcome: buoyancy of water is missing, no longer bathed in a nutrient solution, air dries things out

4 Invading Land Those adverse conditions favored evolution of: structures that support, vessels that transport, and structures that conserve water See handout

5 Three major groups Bryophytes: small nonvascular plants –Mosses, liverworts Seedless, vascular plants –ferns, horsetails Seed bearing plants –Usually divided into two classes: –Gymnosperms (“naked seeds”) and Angiosperms (flowering plants)

6 What is vascular tissue? Tissues that conduct water and food throughout the plant Equivalent of blood vessels in higher animals Xylem conducts water Phloem conducts food

7 How do bryophytes survive without vascular tissue? Must remain small Must have water for reproduction Must live in moist areas Rely on diffusion and primitive rootlike structures to absorb water

8 liverwort hornwort moss

9 Seedless, Vascular horsetails Whisk ferns

10 Invading Land Evolutionary order: bryophytes first—410 million years ago Ferns—by 360 million years ago Conifers—by 290 million years ago Angiosperms—138 million years ago

11 Bryophytes Mosses, liverworts, hornworts 18,600 species Small Moist environments No vascular tissue (no xylem or phloem) Rhizoids are rootlike

12 Bryophytes “Alternation of generations” means a gametophyte plant produces a sporophyte plant, which then produces a gametophyte Sporophyte remains attached to the gametophyte

13 Bryophytes The stages are named after what they produce A sporophyte produces spores A gametophyte produces gametes Sporophyte capsules

14 Bryophytes Sperm must swim to the egg, so water must be available Also need water because they do not have true roots or vascular tissue antheridium archegonium

15 Bryophytes


17 Ferns 12,000 species Mostly tropical Very diverse Range is size from 1 cm to 25 meters tall Have vascular tissue, but do not produce seeds

18 Ferns Dominant stage is the sporophyte (2n) Alternation of generations Sporophyte produces haploid spores (n) which grows into a gametophye Sori contain spores

19 sorus

20 Ferns Germinating spores develop into small gametophyes, the plant’s stage which produces gametes The gameotyphyte plant is very small and hard to notice Heart shaped: called a prothallus


22 Tiny gametophyte sporophyte gametophyte

23 Fern gamete producing structures archegonia antheridia

24 Gametophyte Antheridia are sperm producing structures Archegonia are egg producing structures Fertilization forms a zygote (2n), which develops into a sporophyte plant (2n) The sporophyte develops into the leafy fern we recognize, and will go on to produce haploid spores



27 Gymnosperms : Naked Seeds (not enclosed in a fruit) 4 Major groups: Cycads: mostly tropical or subtropical regions Gingkoes: native to Southeastern China Conifers: cone bearing Gnetales: resemble angiosperms, but no flower

28 Cycads Most common in equatorial regions, some subtropical areas

29 Cycad Distribution

30 Gingkoes Fruit has a foul odor; some cities have removed all female trees

31 Gnetales Small leaves that resemble angiosperm leaves No flowers Cones may be fleshy and brightly colored Some consider them to be a “bridge” to angiosperms

32 Conifers Trees and shrubs that have needles or scale like leaves Bear seeds on exposed cone scales Most are evergreen Examples: pine, fir, cypress, redwood, pacific yew

33 Coniferous Forest Why are they typically in colder climates?

34 Conifers Both male and female cones are produced Male cones produce pollen, which drifts and lands on ovules of female cones Pollen sprouts a tube which grows to the eggs inside the ovule

35 Conifers After fertilization, the zygote develops into a seed. The seed becomes a mature sporophyte (2n), producing male and female cones The cones produce haploid spores which become pollen and eggs



38 Conifers Slow to reproduce After pollen lands, may be a year before fertilization occurs This is a competitive disadvantage

39 Angiosperms Flowering plants The flower is the reproductive structure Sporophyte is the dominant generation Gametophyte generation is small (microscopic) ; this offers protection and nutrition, and is a competitive advantage.

40 Angiosperms Coevolved with pollinators Birds Insects: bees, butterflies, moths, etc. Bats Mutually beneficial

41 Flower parts Stamen (male) produces pollen; Pistil (female) produces egg

42 Stamen and Pistil

43 Angiosperms Zygote (embryo) forms in the base of the female ovary in an ovule Each ovule becomes a seed; the whole ovary becomes the fruit, or part of the fruit

44 Seed Each ovule may produce a seed Ovary Receptacle


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