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English Language and Composition

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1 English Language and Composition
AP Multiple Choice English Language and Composition

2 What should I expect? Section I = mc in 1 hour over 4 to 5 prose passages (expect non-fiction) College level/not easy/not all American/different purposes Self-contained (i.e., you do not have to know the context or background) Basic biblical and mythological allusions are expected

3 Strong Analytical Skills
Follow sophisticated syntax Respond to diction Be comfortable with upper level vocab Be familiar with rhetorical terminology Make inferences Be sensitive to irony and tone Recognize components of organization and style Be familiar with modes of discourse and rhetorical strategies

4 Begin by looking for Length of selections
Time periods and writing styles Number of questions asked Types of questions Do all of this in a minute or two Skim questions briefly to get about 5 ideas to look for when reading

5 Timing 1 hour (12-15 minutes per passage) Keep a watch in front of you
10 minutes to read the passage 5 minutes to answer all the questions Keep a watch in front of you Does not get progressively harder Read passage carefully first; just skim questions Slow down and read with all of your senses (refrain from licking your paper, however)

6 Passage Reading Tips Underline, circle, highlight (active reading)
Pay close attention to punctuation, syntax, diction, pacing, organization Read as if aloud, emphasize meaning and intent  hear those words in your head Use you finger to underscore each line Use all info including title, footnotes, author, date Look for organizational and rhetorical devices Look for thematic lines and details Practice reading aloud like this (1.5 min/page)

7 Reading Tips Do your best to answer all questions from one passage before moving on Try to get the main point without getting bogged down in unfamiliar diction Visualize while you read (movie) Paraphrase/put ideas in your own words by paragraph Read questions carefully after passage Leave most difficult questions for the end of each section

8 Reading Archaic Prose (17th and 18th century writers)
As you read, think about where paragraphs might go split it up in your mind Treat colons and semicolons as periods Get a handle on thought divisions because of long, sentences with complex ideas Look for extended metaphors— common

9 Practice Hints about wrong answers Contradictory to the passage
Irrelevant or not addressed in passage Unreasonable Too general or specific Only half correct (something and something) Buzz words Right words/wrong concept Right concept/wrong words Often, anything said by authorities (parent, teacher, clergy, *esp. anything that sounds like what an English teacher would say is wrong )

10 Types of Questions Straightforward
The passages is an example of a ____ type of essay. (c. comparison/contrast) The pronoun it refers to (b. his gait)

11 Types of Questions Interpretation of lines or draw conclusions
Lines serve to (a. reinforce the author’s thesis)

12 Types of Questions All Except requiring the reader to consider every possibility The AP English Language and Composition exam is all of the following except A. given in May of each year. B. open to high school students. C. published in the New York Times. D. used as a qualifier for college credit. E. is a three hour test.

13 Types of Questions Inference or abstraction of a concept not directly stated in the passage In “Letter from a Birmingham Jail”, the reader can infer that the speaker is (e. religious).

14 Types of Questions Roman numerals In the passage “night” refers to
I. The death of the young woman II. A pun on Sir William’s title III. The end of the affair A. I only B. I and II C. I and III D. II and III E. I, II, and III

15 Questions about Rhetoric
The shift in point of view has the effect of The syntax of lines ___ to ___ serves to The second sentence is unified by metaphorical references to The antecedent for ___ is The third sentence remains coherent because of the use of The style of the passage can best be characterized as Lines ___ and ___ are parallel such as

16 Author’s Meaning and Purpose
Which of the following best identifies the meaning of Which of the following best describes the author’s purpose The main purpose of ___ is to make clear In context, which of the following meanings are contained in

17 Questions about the main idea
The theme of the second paragraph is The speaker’s attitude is best described as one of In context, the sentence ___ is best interpreted as The atmosphere or tone is one of Which of the following would the author least likely Which of the following is true about the various assertions made in the passage All of the following ideas may be found in the passage except

18 Questions about Organization and Structure
The quotation ___ signals a shift from The speaker’s mention of ___ is appropriate to the development of her argument by The type of argument employed by the author is most similar to which of the following The speaker describes ___ in an order best described as moving from The relationship between ___ and ___ is explained primarily by the use of The author’s discussion depends on which of the following structures Which of the following best describes the function of the third paragraph in relation to the preceding two?

19 Questions about Rhetorical Modes
The pattern of exposition exemplified in the passage The author’s use of description is appropriate because Which of the following best describes the author’s method Because the author uses expository format, he is able to

20 Strategies for Answering
Work in order Mark up exam booklet Do not spend too much time on one question Length of selection does not relate to difficulty Work within the context; don’t fight the question or passage Consider all the choices in a given question Maintain an open mind about a contradictory answer All parts of the answer must be correct Go back to text when in doubt

21 Specific Techniques Process of elimination
Any that are obviously wrong Those which are too narrow or broad Illogical choices Synonymous answers Answers which cancel each other out If two answers are close  find the general one that contains all aspects of the question or one limited enough to provide the correct detail

22 Specific Techniques Substitution/Fill-in Using Context
Rephrase using a blank Find the one that is the best fit Using Context Use when directed to a specific place in the text Read the sentences before and after the reference for clues

23 Specific Techniques Anticipation Intuition
Mark details and ideas that you would ask questions about on the first reading Intuition Trust your own knowledge from the past

24 Time Running Out Scan remaining questions and look for
Shortest questions/point to a line Look for specific detail/definition questions Look for self-contained questions “The jail sentence was a bitter winter for his plan” is an example of (c. analogy)

25 Guessing A wrong answer = ¼ of a point
Try to answer every question based on educated guess Blank answers = 0 so it’s ok to have a few blank answers

26 Factual Questions Words refer to Allusions Antecedents
Pronoun referents

27 Technical Questions Sentence structure Style Grammatical purpose
Dominant technique Imagery Point of view Organization of passage Narrative progress of passage Conflict Irony Function of

28 Analytical Rhetorical strategy Shift in development Rhetorical stance
Style Metaphor Comparison/contrast Cause/effect Argument Description Narration Specific-general Characterization Imagery Passage is primarily concerned with Function of

29 Inferential Effect of diction Tone Inferences Effect of description
Effect on reader Narrator’s attitude Image suggests Effect of detail Author implies Author most concerned with Symbol

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