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1 Chapter 2 The Constitution.  1607 - First colony - Jamestown was established.  1756-1763 - French and Indian War fought between England and France.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Chapter 2 The Constitution.  1607 - First colony - Jamestown was established.  1756-1763 - French and Indian War fought between England and France."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Chapter 2 The Constitution

2  1607 - First colony - Jamestown was established.  1756-1763 - French and Indian War fought between England and France over the western portion of the colonies.  In 1763 the British Parliament began to pass laws taxing items such as sugar, tea, and paper products in the colonies to raise revenue to help pay off the war debt. Key Events Leading to American Independence

3  Met in Sept. 1774 to improve relationship between the colonies and Britain.  Delegates sent a petition to King George III of England to explain their grievances.  Agreed to boycott British goods.  After receiving the petition, the British government condemned the actions of the Congress as open acts of rebellion.  April 19, 1775 - Fighting breaks out between British soldiers and Minutemen. First Continental Congress

4  May 10, 1775  Established an army.  Wrote and adopted the Declaration of Independence. Painting by John Trumbull, 1819, Library of Congress Second Continental Congress

5  Thomas Paine wrote Common Sense in January 1776. A widely read pamphlet which argued for independence from Britain. Denounced the corrupt British monarchy and offered reasons to break with Britain. Should Colonies Declare Independence?

6  Written by Thomas Jefferson.  Influenced by the political philosophy of John Locke: Natural Rights Social Contract © Bettmann /Corbis © Archivo Iconografico S.A. /Corbis The Declaration of Independence

7  Eu_NLU or Eu_NLU  ory.php?storyId=106168024 ory.php?storyId=106168024  What are several reasons why the colonists declared independence from England? The Declaration of Independence

8  1777 - Passed by Second Continental Congress.  Confederation - a voluntary association of independent states.  States retained most of the power. First Attempt at Government: The Articles of Confederation Library of Congress

9 Structure of Government under the Articles of Confederation


11  Weak central government - states held most of the power.  Congress could not draft soldiers for a standing army.  Congress could not collect taxes.  States could enter into their own treaties.  9 of the 13 states had to approve any law before it was enacted. Weaknesses of the Articles

12 © Bettmann/Corbis  Shays and 1500 armed farmers restrained a Massachusetts state court from foreclosing on the mortgages on their farms.  Congress could not raise an army to stop the rebellion. Shays’s Rebellion - 1780

13 ★ Held in May 1787 to revise the Articles.  The Virginia Plan - Proposed a strong central government and a bicameral legislature (number of representatives in proportion to each state’s population).  The New Jersey Plan - Proposed strengthening the Articles of Confederation; create a one house legislature with one vote for each state. Constitutional Convention

14  The Great Compromise - settled the big state vs. small state issue by calling for a legislature with two houses 1. House of Representatives with the number of representatives based on the population of each state. 2. Senate with two members from each state (members elected by the state legislatures). Constitutional Compromises

15  The Three-Fifths Compromise - settled the issue of whether or not slaves would be counted for purposes of determining a state’s population. Each slave would count as 3/5 of a person in determining representation in Congress. Constitutional Compromises

16  Should slavery be banned or supported by the Constitution? This issue had the potential to hinder ratification of the Constitution. Article 1, Section 9 forbid Congress from prohibiting the importation of slaves for 20 years (until 1808). Constitutional Compromises

17 ★ Power is divided between a central (national) government and the state governments. Basic Principles of the Constitution - Federalism

18 ★ Powers of the national government were separated into different branches so no one branch would have enough power to dominate the others: Legislative Executive Judicial Basic Principles of the Constitution - Separation of Powers

19 ★ Powers of each branch can be used to check the powers of the other two branches of government. ★ No branch has exclusive domain over any single activity. Basic Principles of the Constitution - Checks and Balances


21 Article I: The Legislative Branch ★ Bicameral Legislature ★ Sets out terms of office; selection process ★ Section 8 Enumerated powers 17 clauses Implied powers Final clause: necessary and proper clause The Constitution

22 Article II: The Executive Branch ★ Four year terms ★ Qualifications for office ★ Removal ★ Powers Commander in Chief Treaties Appointments ★ State of the Union address The Constitution

23 – Article III: the Judicial Branch ★ The Supreme Court ★ Congress establishes the lower courts ★ Jurisdiction The Constitution

24 Articles IV through VII ★ Article IV: relations among the states and the full faith and credit clause ★ Article V: amending the constitution ★ Article VI: supremacy clause ★ Article VII: ratification The Constitution

25 ★ Federalists supported the document (wanted a strong central government). ★ Anti-Federalists opposed the document (feared a strong central government). ★ The Federalist Papers played a key role. Ratification

26 Most written by Alexander Hamilton and James Madison between October 1787 and May 1788. Explanations of the Framers’ intentions. Nos. 10 and 51 of particular importance. The Federalist Papers

27 ★ To gain the necessary support for ratification of the Constitution, the Federalists promised to add the Bill of Rights. Ratification

28 Amending the Constitution ★ Framers made the formal amendment process slow to prevent impulsive amendments.

29 Amending the Constitution

30  Although 11,000 amendments have been considered by Congress, only 33 have been submitted to the states after being approved, and only 27 have been ratified since 1789. 11,000 27 Amending the Constitution

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