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Language Processing Hierarchy

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Presentation on theme: "Language Processing Hierarchy"— Presentation transcript:

1 Language Processes Relation to Reading Comprehension and Academic Learning

2 Language Processing Hierarchy
Idioms Analogies Multiple Meaning Words Differences Similarities Synonyms-Categorization- Antonyms - Concepts Attributes Association Function Labeling/Vocabulary

3 Language Processing Remediation
Strengthen each floor with additional language skills to broaden into a wide strong foundation. New language skills build on a strong base. Don’t keep adding additional floors on top without expanding the foundation.

4 We should rarely be working two levels from the language tower at once because they represent discrete hierarchical levels of cognitive complexity. One skill serves as the foundation or building block to scaffold toward the next one.

5 There is nothing magic about this hierarchy other than it represents a hierarchy of development.
Language processing skills are the foundation for reading comprehension and academic learning.

6 Language Process: Labeling (Vocabulary)
Labeling is very concrete - object naming. Vocabulary consists of words we understand when we hear or read them (receptive vocabulary) and words we speak or write (expressive vocabulary). A limited vocabulary is a “red flag” for language learning disability and limited literacy skills.

7 Evidence based vocabulary teaching strategies; Marzano strategy and the LINC Strategy
Both strategies effective in teaching vocabulary to the green, yellow and red level students. Both strategies include drawing/sketching a picture (a visual) of the definition which has significant impact in learning and remembering the vocabulary word.



10 LINCS Strategy





15 Marzano’s Six Step Process For Building Academic Vocabulary Strategy
Step 1 –The teacher explains a new word. Step 2 – The student restates or explains new word in their own words. Step 3 – The student creates a visual representation of the word Step 4 – The student engage in activities to deepen knowledge of the new word. Step 5 – The students discuss the new word. Step 6 – The students play games to review new vocabulary

16 Tier Vocabulary Tier 1 – Basic Vocabulary
Tier 2 – High Frequency/Multiple Meaning Tier 3 – Subject Related Vocabulary

17 Tier 1 – basic vocabulary – these words rarely require direct instruction and typically do not have multiple meaning words. Tier 2 – these words often occur in mature language situations and therefore strongly influence speaking and reading. Tier 3 – low frequency words that occur in a specific domain.

18 Language Process: Function
Once a child has names of objects, he/she attaches functional meaning to those labels, defining what each object does or does with it. Function of objects - identify relevant from irrelevant information lays the foundation for the students ability to identify main idea of a story.

19 Language Process: Association
Child begins to associate an object with other objects once it can identify the function of another object. It develops the ability to answer Why questions and supports the child’s ability to understand Why-because.

20 Language Process: Attributes
Child learns specific attributes of objects. Attributes of objects develops the child’s ability to relevant from irrelevant information.

21 Language Process: Categorization
Other language levels are prerequisite to categorization. A child can’t group if he doesn’t know what they are, what they do, or when they are used. Those language features must be acquired before categorization skills can develop. Categorization skills develops that filing system of the brain and strengthens short term memory.

22 Question Comprehension
Who – asks for a person in the answer What – asks for an object or situation in the answer. When – asks for a time in the answer. Where – asks for a place in the answer. Why – asks for a reason in the answer. How – asks for in what way in the answer.

23 What Words Are people words Are object words Are time words
Are place words Are reason words Are in what way words

24 Identifying the Question Word
The answer is in the backyard. Where The answer is tomorrow. When The answer is first you put in the eggs then put in the flour. How

25 Who What Where When Why How
Place the following below the question word. In the back yard In the morning Cinderella Because it is hot outside. First mix the ingredients, place in pan and bake.

26 Generate a Question In the backyard. Because it is hot outside
In the morning. Cinderella. HELP (Handbook of Exercises for Language Processes) No Glamour Language Fun Decks – Questions

27 Language Processes: Similarities and Differences
Once the grouping is realized a child begins to differentiate the distinguishing features that separate items within the category. Language skills of similarity and difference won’t develop until the processing hierarchy has established the prerequisite levels of knowledge. Similarities and Differences - comparing and contrasting.

28 We constantly look for the similarities and differences in things so we can make connections between what is new and what is familiar. Otherwise we view our world as thousands of isolated parts. HELP (Handbook of Exercises for Language Processing) From Sentence to Narrative

29 One word and another (was and saw are the same because they have the same letters they are not the same because the letters are in different order) One fact or opinion and another One character and another One book and another The book and the movie The actions of the character in the story and what the reader him/herself would do.

30 Language Process: Multiple Meanings
Children that understand the same word can have more than one meaning are supported in their academic learning. One meaning of many multiple meaning words is a noun and the other meaning is often a verb. I.E. “train” – a vehicle that goes on a track and “train” means to teach.

31 Language Process: Analogies
Analogy building develops the child’s critical thinking skills as well as an understanding of the relationship between different parts of language. Through analogy building the child is required to create a full sentence to describe the relationship of these two concepts

32 Continue with the language processes through the high school years and in addition focus also on the figurative language of idioms, metaphors, and similes as the opportunity presents itself in all your curriculum (not just language arts)

33 Memory Memory is a process We have memory for all kinds of stimuli
Language information needs to be retrieved Memory Strategy Resources: HELP for Auditory Memory, Listen and Recall for Adults and Adolescents.

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