Presentation on theme: "The Industrial Revolution 1750-1850 Subtitle. Why? ▪ State Content Standards ▪ –10.3 Students analyze the effects of the Industrial Revolution in England,"— Presentation transcript:
Why? ▪ State Content Standards ▪ –10.3 Students analyze the effects of the Industrial Revolution in England, France, Germany, Japan, and the United States. ▪ 1. Analyze why England was the first country to industrialize. ▪ 2. Examine how scientific and technological changes and new forms of energy brought about massive social, economic, and cultural change (e.g., the inventions and discoveries of James Watt, Eli Whitney, Henry Bessemer, Louis Pasteur, Thomas Edison). ▪ 3. Describe the growth of population, rural to urban migration, and growth of cities associated with the Industrial Revolution. ▪ 4. Trace the evolution of work and labor, including the demise of the slave trade and the effects of immigration, mining and manufacturing, division of labor, and the union movement. ▪ 5. Understand the connections among natural resources, entrepreneurship, labor, and capital in an industrial economy. ▪ 6. Analyze the emergence of capitalism as a dominant economic pattern and the responses to it, including Utopianism, Social Democracy, Socialism, and Communism.
Goals for Learning ▪ To name the economic conditions needed for industrialization to take place ▪ To explain what was revolutionary about the economic changes that took place in England during the Industrial Revolution ▪ To describe the benefits and problems of industrialization ▪ To identify important inventions that helped industrialization
The Industrial Revolution Begins in England (Section 1) ▪ Beginning in the 1750s –Shift begins from homes to factories ▪ What is the Industrial Revolution? –An important change in the way people work –Used machines to make goods rather than by hand Why England? Natural resources Plenty of workers Capital to build factories and machines
The Industrial Revolution Begins in England (Section 1) ▪ What are Natural Resources? –Come from nature --Examples: coal, iron ore and rivers ▪ Why Did England Have So Many Workers? –Population increased by 50% because of the potato –English government forced people off the land (Enclosure Mvt) Rich people allowed to fence in open fields These were farmed by poor families
The Industrial Revolution Begins in England (Section 1) ▪ What is Capital? –MONEY!!! & MORE…. Anything that has value (equipment,etc.) Used to buy factories and equipment ▪ Did the Industrial Revolution Spread Beyond England? –Germany 1860s –USA 1870s –It’s Still going on! ▪ Economists –People who study money –Divide the world into 2 groups: Industrialized nations Developing nations
The Growth of the First Modern Industries (Section 2) ▪ England: Textile Industry ▪ –Cloth that workers weave from cotton, silk or wool ▪ What Inventions Helped the Textile Industry? –John Kay: 1733 Flying Shuttle –Allowed workers to weave twice as much cloth
The Growth of the First Modern Industries (Section 2) ▪ What Inventions Helped the Textile Industry? *James Hargreaves: 1764 Spinning Jenny –Twisted many rows of thread into yarn *Richard Arkwright: 1764 Machine that produced tighter yarn than the spinningjenny *Samuel Crompton: 1778 Combined spinning jenny and Arkwright’s invention Spinning Mule –Spun thread 150 miles long from 1 pound of cotton
The Growth of the First Modern Industries (Section 2) ▪ Why Did Manufactures Build Factories? *Textile work was done in homes –Costly & time consuming *Factories built Workers left their homes and came to the factories *Factories brought workers, machines and source of power together -Workers now worked when & where manufacturer told them –Also the hours that the manufacturer said –Also do the amount of work the manufacturer demanded
The Growth of the First Modern Industries (Section 2) ▪ What Problems Did Cotton Growers Have? –Cotton contains seeds Removed by hand –Eli Whitney: 1793 Cotton gin Removed seeds by machine Clean cotton 50 times faster *Cotton became most important export from the southern U.S. –Most went to England (“Cotton is King”)
The Growth of the First Modern Industries (Section 2) ▪ What is Mass Production? –Identical parts used to produce an identical product –Cuts the time workers need to make something ▪ Produce more than by hand ▪ Meets demand/Exceeds demand $price$ goes down.
The Growth of the First Modern Industries (Section 2) ▪ What Takes Impurities Out of Iron? –Abraham Darby: 1709 Used purified coal to make iron –Coke Stirred iron to remove impurities ▪ Who Found a Way to Make Steel? –Henry Bessemer: 1856 Air forced into melted iron burned away impurities Became steel “Bessemer Process”
Transportation Improves (Section 3) ▪ Movement of people and things from one place to another –Industry needs good transportation ▪ How Did Canals Help Industry? –Ship heavy products –Roads were made from dirt Problem…rain turns dirt to mud. ?
Transportation Improves (Section 3) ▪ How Did the Steam Engine Change the Textile Industry? –Steam Engine: 1705 –James Watt: 1763 Made steam engine more efficient 1773 developed steam engine that turned wheels –Could now run machine Allowed textile manufactures to build factories anywhere they wanted –Did not need to be near rivers!
Transportation Improves (Section 3) ▪ Who is the Founder of Railroads? *George Stephenson: 1814 Steam locomotive –Used a boiler to increase the heat –Produced steam under pressure –Could haul really heavy loads ▪ Why Did Railroads become Important? –Most important form of transportation in the 19th century Fast and inexpensive way to move raw materials and finished products
Industry Brings Change and Problems (Section 4) ▪ What Laws Stopped the Spread of Industrialization? –New machines couldn’t be sold to other countries –Skilled workers not allowed to leave ▪ How Did a British Worker Help the USA? –Samuel Slater: 1789 Memorized how to build a spinning machine Came to US Met Moses Brown who then built spinning machines in the U.S.
Industry Brings Change and Problems (Section 4) ▪ What Did Lowell Do For His Factory Workers? –Francis Lowell: 1823 Build a factory town Hired young women to work in his factory Trained them to work the textile machines Set up school to teach reading and writing Provided a clean place to live –Few factory workers followed his example
Industry Brings Change and Problems (Section 4) ▪ What Did Industrialization Do to Cities? –Changed the way people worked and where they lived Moved from farms to cities –Cause city populations to grow rapidly Factories in or near cities –Problems Unhealthy conditions
Industry Brings Change and Problems (Section 4) ▪ What Problems Did Factory Workers Have? –Whole families worked in factories Unsafe conditions common Dangerous machines –Factory owners would not pay for doctors to helpinjured workers Would not pay if out sick or injured –Labor unions not allowed –Most factory workers owned no property andcould not vote to change laws
Industry Brings Change and Problems (Section 4) ▪ What Two New Sources of Power Changed the World? –Electricity and Oil Samuel F.B. Morse: 1840s –Telegraph –Morse code –Send messages over long distances –1866 cable across the Atlantic to England to send messages
Industry Brings Change and Problems (Section 4) ▪ What Two New Sources of Power Changed the World? –Alexander Graham Bell: 1876 Telephone –Thomas Edison: 1879 Light bulb
Industry Brings Change and Problems (Section 4) ▪ Why was the Discovery of Gasoline Important? –Ran the internal combustion engine Gottlieb Daimler: 1885 Made the automobile possible –Wright Brothers: 1903 1st airplane flight Powered by internal combustion engine