Presentation on theme: "Gender Identity Week 8 FEM4105"— Presentation transcript:
1 Gender Identity Week 8 FEM4105 Psychology of Personality & Human Dynamics BS(PM)-PJJGender IdentityWeek 8INSTRUCTOR:SITI NOR BINTI YAACOB, PhD.
2 Theory of Gender Identity Psychological Psychoanalytic theoryGender identity occurs through the process of identification during which the child internalized the attitudes and values of the same-sex parent.Social-Cognitive theoryGender identity occurs through the process of the child observing what others of the same sex are doing, receiving instructions from others regarding what is gender-appropriate behavior, receiving reinforcement when such behavior is performed, and learning to self-regulate the expression of gender-appropriate behavior in order to receive reinforcement.
3 Theory of Gender Identity Psychological Cognitive perspectiveGender identity occurs through the process which children classify activities and behaviors as being for either boys or girls, while developing schemas for helping them to observe, recall, and relate their actions in a manner that is consistent with their own gender labeling.
4 Theory of Gender Identity Social Role Theory Gender identity is based on the notion that there is a historical pattern of a division of labor that is based on males being providers and women being domestic caregivers, and that with the social roles reflected in this division of labor, males tend to occupy higher-status roles while women tend to occupy lower-status ones. This leads to the expectation that males and females are to display a pattern of behavior consistent with their social roles.
5 Theory of Gender Identity Biological Sex chromosomesGender identity occurs through the presence of chromosomes that determine the extent to which the cells in the body develop into the physical structures of a male or female.HormonesGender identity occurs through the presence of the development of primary and secondary sex characteristics.
6 Theory of Gender Identity Biological HermaphroditismBecause a hermaphrodite possesses the primary sex characteristics of both sexes, gender identity occurs through the process of deciding on what sex the child will be raised as, and using corrective surgery to create the appropriate external genitals and other physical features.
7 Theory of Gender Identity Evolutionary Perspective Gender identity is based on evolution of males and females developing different patterns of behavior that help the species procreate and survive, including males exhibiting a pattern of aggressive behavior because it allows them to provide food and protection for other members of the species and attract the most desirable mating partners, while females exhibit a pattern of nurturing behavior because it ensures the necessary care and attention required for infants to reach adulthood.
8 Consequences of Gender Identity: Gender Differences in Personality AggressionMales tend to display more overt physical aggression than females do, but males and females display equal amounts of passive or indirect aggression.Love and romanceCompared to men, women tend to report being in love more frequently, having more romantic feelings, and finding love more rewarding, but also having more experiences of loving someone without being loved in return and having more pragmatic views about love.
9 Consequences of Gender Identity: Gender Differences in Personality Mate selectionMales tend to focus on the physical features (e.g., attractiveness and youthfulness) of potential mates, while females tend to focus on status and resources (e.g., income and education)SexualityCompared to women, men tend to have more casual sexual behavior, a greater likelihood of experiencing on orgasm during sex, and greater sex drive, but a similar level of sexual satisfaction.
10 Consequences of Gender Identity: Gender Differences in Personality JealousyMales tend to experience jealousy over the possibility of their partner having sex experience with someone else, while female tend to experience jealousy over their partner having strong feelings for someone else.Social influenceWhile females tend to be more conforming on masculine-related tasks, males tend to be more conforming on feminine-related tasks; no differences between males and females in conformity tends are found on neutral tasks.
11 Consequences of Gender Identity: Gender Differences in PersonalityEmotional ExpressivenessWhile males tend to self-report less emotional expression, more objective measures show no gender differences.Variation in emotional expressionCompared to males, females tend to demonstrate more facial expressions of their emotions, with the exception of aggression, display more verbally and experience more intensely their emotions, and express their emotions in a more socially acceptable manner.
12 Consequences of Gender Identity: Gender Differences in Personality Accounting for Gender Differences in Emotional ExpressionExplanations accounting for gender differences in emotional expression include: an evolutionary survival value; differences in parental encouragement of emotional expression by their sons and daughters; the rewards and punishments provided by peers for emotional expressiveness; and the societal expectations placed on men and women regarding the appropriateness of emotional expressiveness.
13 Consequences of Gender Identity: Gender Differences in Personality Self-Evaluation and Expectations:Self-esteemMales tend to display a slightly higher level of self-esteem than girls, with it peaking during adolescence and this difference being due, in part, to the variations in physical development occurring during adolescent and the concern over body image for girls
14 Consequences of Gender Identity: Gender Differences in Personality Self-confidenceWomen tend to display lower levels of self-confidence when performing non-gender-appropriate tasks and there is the possibility of them being evaluated, which tends to reflect their more modest and less achievement-focused expression of self- presentation.
15 Consequences of Gender Identity: Gender Differences in Personality Joy and SadnessWhile men and women display an equal degree of happiness, women tend to exhibit a higher level of depression than men, which may be attributed to a more pessimistic style of thinking, less than equal treatment in various aspects of society, and negative economic factors experienced more by women than men.
16 Consequences of Gender Identity: Gender Differences in Personality General intelligenceThere are no major gender differences on measures of general intelligence.Verbal abilities of reading and writingWomen tend to score higher on measures of verbal ability, such as writing and reading.Accounting for gender differences in verbal abilitiesExplanations accounting for gender differences in verbal abilities include: preferential responses by parents when talking to their infant daughters; early emphasis on language ability for girls; and cultural expectations.
17 Consequences of Gender Identity: Gender Differences in Personality Mathematical abilitiesIn general, males tend to score higher on measures of mathematical ability.Accounting for Gender Differences in Mathematical AbilitiesExplanations include differing cultural expectations and differential treatment of males in schools encouraging their abilities and interest in mathematics.
18 Sex-Role Stereotypes: Differences in the Perception of the Personality of Men and Women Judgment of work quality. Males have skills superior to women.Even when similar in quality, work done by women tends to be rated lower than the same wok done by men.Explanation of successful performance. Successful performances by males tend to be attributed to the effort exerted and skills possessed, while the success of women is attributed to luck.Women are perceived as being less skillful and industrious than males, as a result, tend to paid less for their work.
19 Sex-Role Stereotypes: Differences in the Perception of the Personality of Men and Women Perceived personality traits of men and women. The traits possessed by males are perceived as being more positive and valued more by our society.Women around the world are associated with being warm, nurturing caregivers, while men are perceived as being competent and instrumental.Ambivalent sexism. Women are perceived as needing to be protected and are also resented for their abilities to challenge men.Women have he least power in those countries where they are both protected and disrespected.
20 Sex-Role Stereotypes: Differences in the Perception of the Personality of Men and Women Stereotype threat. You or a group to which you belong may be aware of and accept certain stereotype beliefs about yourself.The acceptance of the stereotype beliefs begins to affect your performance in a manner consistent with the beliefs.Reducing the impact of stereotype threat. Identity-safe environments can be created that make it clear that the stereotype threats are not endorsed.Environments free stereotype threats create a sense of welcome and belongings for all individuals.
21 Androgyny Definition: The personality dimension of androgyny is the expression of both masculine and feminine personality traits and behaviors.Behavioral and personality correlates of androgynyAndrogynous individuals demonstrate a greater degree of sex- role flexibility and interpersonal satisfaction and, along with masculine sex-typed individuals, self-regard, which has been linked to the possession of masculine traits.The changing face of androgynyMore recent conceptualizations of androgyny rely less on gender- linked characterizations of masculinity and femininity and more on gender-free descriptions of behavior patterns.