Purpose of the Respiratory System To exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide between the atmosphere and the blood of the human body. Oxygen is needed for the process of cellular respiration: Glucose + Oxygen ATP + Carbon Dioxide + Water 1
Nasal Cavity Filters out dust and other large particles in the air. Hair like structures called cilia, line this passageway & sweep the particles into the throat so they won’t get into the lungs. It also has mucous membranes to warm and moisten the air.
Phaynx & Larynx PHARYNX A location in the body that allows air and food pass through. This part of the body is shared with the respiratory and digestive system. LARYNX 1. It prevents food particles from traveling down into the lungs. A flap of tissue called epiglottis, covers the opening to this structure. 2. Contains vocal cords and helps produce vocalization. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aAMlTxOrrj0 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7BR6BlwC_n0
Trachea A single long tube with cartilage rings. It is also known as the wind pipe. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xiTHKH2bQN8#t=159 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Iflca2KQWP4
Bronchi & Bronchioles BRONCHI Two small tubes that branch off from the trachea. They are airways that transport gas in and out of the lungs. BRONCHIOLES The smallest and narrowest airways of the respiratory system. At the end there is a bundle of air sacs.
Alveoli Thin air sacs that are the site of oxygen and carbon dioxide gas exchange. The sacs are bundled together like grapes. Blood capillaries surround it. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XTMYSGXhJ4E
Diaphragm Muscle that separates the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity. Contractions of the muscle expands the cavity. Relaxation of the muscle reduces the size of the cavity.
Alveoli Through the process of diffusion gas moves from an area of higher concentration to a lower concentration. The heart pumps blood to the lungs. O 2 diffuses into the blood capillary CO 2 diffuses out of the blood capillary 4
How does the body know when to inhale and exhale?
Emphysema CAUSESSYMPTOMS Long term exposure to airborne irritants (ex. smoking, air pollution) Coughing Shortness of breath Difficulty exhaling Alveoli sacs ruptured 6
Asthma CAUSESSYMPTOMS Interaction of genetic and environmental factors. Inherited tendency to develop allergies to airborne irritants. Coughing Wheezing Shortness of breath Chest pain Constriction of bronchiole muscle tissue Inflammation of bronchiole muscle tissue 6
Lung Cancer CAUSESSYMPTOMS Primary Cause 1 st hand smoking 2 nd hand smoke Long term exposure to airborne irritants (high air pollution) Family history of disease Coughing Wheezing Weight loss Fatigue Tumor growth in lung tissue (can spread to other parts of the respiratory system & beyond) 6
Bronchitis CAUSESSYMPTOMS Acute condition virus or bacteria Chronic condition 1 st and 2 nd hand smoking A cough that brings up mucus Wheezing Shortness of breath Chest Pain Low fever Inflammation of bronchiole muscle tissue 6
Pneumonia CAUSESSYMPTOMS Bacteria Viruses Cough with mucus Shortness of breath Chest pain Shaking chills High fever Fluid or pus fills up alveoli 6
Tuberculosis CAUSESSYMPTOMS Bacteria Cough with mucus Cough with blood Fatigue Fever Weight loss Wheezing Bacteria multiply in the alveoli and rupture the alveoli membrane spreads to other airways and parts of the lung 6