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In-Depth Interview. What is Interview? Interview: A Purposeful Social Interaction, Conversation, Discussion Two, More People, One Questions, Other Answers-----Research.

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Presentation on theme: "In-Depth Interview. What is Interview? Interview: A Purposeful Social Interaction, Conversation, Discussion Two, More People, One Questions, Other Answers-----Research."— Presentation transcript:

1 In-Depth Interview

2 What is Interview? Interview: A Purposeful Social Interaction, Conversation, Discussion Two, More People, One Questions, Other Answers-----Research Question, Topic, Theme

3 In-Depth Interview One-On-One Basis, Two Individuals--- Interviewer and Respondent Purpose: Data Collection, Detailed Discussion on Research Topic, Theme Data: Personal Experiences, Accounts, Words, Opinions, Views, Ideas, Perceptions (Own Words)

4 Structure and Control Issues Un-structured or Semi-structured? List of Questions In Advance? Control of Content and Direction?

5 Structured Interview Structured Interview: Preconceived Topics/ Questions are Devised (Questionnaire) Fixed Order and Wording of Questions Participant Responds To Questions Close-Ended Questions---Choices Are Given

6 In-Depth Interview One View: Unstructured in Format Researcher Introduces Topic No Extensive List---Predetermined, Focused, Short Questions Awareness of Main Theme(s) Think Through Relevant Questions

7 In-Depth Interview (Unstructured) No Control Over Content and Direction of Interview, Discussion Researcher Leaves Respondents to Narrate Their Experiences, Accounts of Events, Themes

8 In-Depth Interview Second View: Semi-Structured in Format Researcher Introduces Topic, Theme Respondents Free To Elaborate on Topic Give Personal Account of Their Experience May Take Researcher in New but Related Direction

9 In-Depth Interview (Semi-Structured) Researcher Has A List of Themes Tentative Questions---Written, Memorized Probing Questions---Specific Information Probing Further Information on Experience Some Control over Content and Direction of Discussion

10 Other Salient Features Medium: Face-to-Face, Telephone Acceptable Practices: Questions, Question Order May Vary, Addition, Deletion Most Open-Ended Questions Actual Questions---Composed on Spot Questions out of Natural Rhythm

11 Focus Group (Group Interview) A Small Group of Individuals----Assembled to Express Their Views, Opinions Theme, Topic Group Environment Qualitative Data Collection Method Data: Same As in In-Depth Interview; Emotions, Feelings, Tensions, Contradictions

12 Main Features Group Size----No Fixed Number Consideration: Each Member is Able to Speak Common View: 6—12 Members Time: Meet 1-2 hours

13 Main Features Composition: No Friends, Still Comfortable to Talk to Each Other Basis of Composition: Common Experience, Common Activities Knowledgeable About Topic, Detailed Discussion Presence of Researcher (Takes notes, Observes) Multiple Sessions--- Multiple Focus Groups

14 Main Features Both Unstructured and Semi-structured Respondents Free to Discuss Topic Researcher Takes an Active Role— Controlling Content and Direction of Group Discussion Questions Prepared In Advance?

15 Main Features No Experts, Self-Appointed Experts, Inhibit Reponses, Intimidate Respondents Hostile Members----Asked to Leave in Breaks

16 Advantages of Focus Group Quick and Cheap---Data Collection Method Setting and Respondents---Variety Direct Talk to Respondents----Clarification, Elaboration, Better Understanding of ideas Opportunity: Respondents to Develop Reactions, Build Responses to Other Members

17 Disadvantages Group Dynamics---Data Quality Dominance of one viewpoint----Dominant Member Reluctance to Reveal Information

18 In-Depth Interview and Focus Group Choice: Not Matter of Either/Or Similarities: Role of Researcher Important-- Determining how the Discussion will Proceed Researcher can Potentially Influence the Content Data :Same in Both Interview Guidelines: Same in Both

19 Differences Total Number of Participants The Amount of Data Collected---Focus Group vs A Set of Individual Interviews Focus Group: Access to Greater Number of Respondents at one point In-depth Interview Provides more details about each Respondent

20 Interview Guidelines Moderation Style: Encourage Respondents, Comfortable, Respected, Input is Needed Sensitive Ear----Interested in Their Views Warm, Avoid Over-Rapport and Conflict Remain Neutral, No Shock or Surprise Probing, Right Questions, From General to Specific Avoid Jargon, Technical, Slang Terms

21 Interview Guidelines Check-List of Themes, No Reliance on Memory Taking Notes: Backbone of Data Collection Recording---Written, Audio-Taping (Reactivity Problem) Jotting on Spot, Casual Jotting (Memory Sparkers)

22 Interview Guidelines Short Notes, Not Long Elaborate Notes—24 Hours Separate Notes---Different Categories Labels with Basic Information: Name, Code, Demographics (Age, Gender, Race, etc.), Location in Social Network, Time and Place of Interview

23 Analysis Look For Patterns---Themes, Perspectives Patterns Formed By Words of Respondents Topics: Consistent High Level Interest in Each Group Group-to-Group Validation: Repetition of a Theme in Most Groups

24 Analysis Focus on Words of Respondents (Own Interpretation Helpful) Process Begins with Researcher’s Interest, Ends with Respondent’s Interest

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