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Group 8 ‘GudBoyz’ teaching writing to L2 learners Agus Prayogo Asih Nurakhir Nico Ouwpoly Sutarno.

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Presentation on theme: "Group 8 ‘GudBoyz’ teaching writing to L2 learners Agus Prayogo Asih Nurakhir Nico Ouwpoly Sutarno."— Presentation transcript:

1 group 8 ‘GudBoyz’ teaching writing to L2 learners Agus Prayogo Asih Nurakhir Nico Ouwpoly Sutarno

2 purpose of presentation To provide an understanding on the principles of teaching writing To provide a short overview on how writing is taught and evaluated by teachers to achieve certain objectives

3 The main points to present 1.Writing at glance and types of classroom writing performance 2.The principles of teaching writing 3.How student writing is evaluated

4 Writing at glance  Writing is the last skill of language after listening, speaking and reading  Many consider that writing is the most difficult skill among the other three  To be able to write well, one should work hard to practice writing in addition to understanding writing concept and tools

5 Types of Classroom Writing Performance Imitative or writing down Intensive or controlled Self-writing Display writing Real writing

6 Principles for Designing Writing Techniques 1. Incorporate practices of “ good “ writers Focus on a goal or main idea in writing, perceptively gauge their audience, Spend some time ( but not too much!) planning to write, Easily let their first ideas flow onto the paper, Follow a general organizational plan as they write, Solicit and utilize feedback on their writing, Are not wedded to certain surface structures, Revise their work willingly and efficiently, Patiently make as many revisions as needed

7 2. Balance process and product. Because writing is a composing process and usually requires multiple drafts before an effectiv are product is created, make sure that students are carefully led through appropriate stages in the process of composing. 3. Account for cultural / literary backgrounds Make sure that your techniques do not assume that your students know English rhetorical conventions. If there are some apparent contrasts between students’ native traditons and those that you are trying to teach, try to help students to understand what it is, exactly, that they are accustomed to and then, by degrees, bring them to the use of acceptable English rhetoric.

8 4. Connect reading and writing. Clearly, students learn to write in part by carefully observing what is already written. That is, they learn by observing, or reading, the written word. By reading and studying a variety of relevant types of text, students can gain important insights both about how they should write and about subject matter that may become the topic of their writing.

9 5. Provide as much authentic writing as possible Wheter writing is real writing or for display, it can still be authentic in that the purposes for writing are clear to the students, the audience is specified overtly, and there is at least some intent to convey meaning. Sharing writing with other students in the class is one way to add authenticity. Publising a class newsletter, writing letters to people outside of class, writing a script for a skit or dramatic presentation, writing a resume, writing advertisements-all these can be seen as authentic writing.

10 6. Frame your techniques in terms of prewriting, drafting, and revising stages

11 How to evaluate student writing? (Brown, 2001)  The evaluation of writing, especially in a process-oriented classroom is a thorny issue. In writing class, a teacher serves as a guide and facilitator of students’ performance in the ongoing process of developing a piece of written work, but at the same time he/she should also serve as a judge.  To serve this dual role requires wisdom and sensitivity.  Fairness and explicitness in what teacher takes into account in evaluation are the keys of being writing judge.

12 Then how to evaluate? (J.D Brown, 1991, adapted by HD. Brown, 2001) There are six general categories that are often the basis for the evaluation of student writing 1. Content : thesis statement, related ideas, development of ideas through personal experience, illustration, facts, opinions 2. Organization : effectiveness of introduction, logical sequence of ideas, conclusion, appropriate length

13 next categories 3. Discourse : topic sentence, paragraph unity, transitions, cohesion, rhetorical conventions, reference, economy, variation 4.Syntax 5.Vocabulary 6. Mechanics : spelling, punctuation, citation of reference (if applicable), neatness and appearance

14 How is the system of weighting of each? Please note that the most evaluative feedback a teacher may give is the comments, both specific and summative of student’ work If numerical score is needed, a teacher can establish a point scale for each category (e.g. 0 – 5) and return the paper with six different scores on them. If single grade or score is needed, consider weighting the first few categories more heavily, or you may emphasize on the content based flavor of the evaluation

15 Examples of weighting (Brown, 2001 p.358) Content: 0 – 24 Organization: 0 – 20 Discourse : 0 – 20 Syntax: 0 – 12 Vocabulary : 0 – 12 Mechanics: 0 – 12 TOTAL: 100

16 Thank you very much Is there any question?

17 References  HD. Brown. (2001). Teaching by Principles. London: Longman

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