2 Genetic EngineeringThe process of making changes in the DNA code of living organisms.Can be done in a variety of different ways.Manipulating DNACell TransformationTransgenicsCloning
3 Selective BreedingSelective breeding takes advantage of naturally occurring genetic variations in organisms, to pass desired traits on to the next generation of organisms.Nearly all domestic animals-including horses, cats, and farm animals as well as most crop plants have been produced by selective breeding.
4 Transgenic OrganismsThese organisms contain genes that have been selected from one species and specifically inserted into another species.
5 CloningA clone is a member of a population of genetically identical cells produced from a single cell.First mammal cloned: Dolly the sheep.Researchers hope that cloning will enable them to; save or reproduce endangered or extinct species, clone human organs.Cloning has raised serious ethical and moral issues .
6 KaryotypeScientists take pictures of chromosomes and pair those chromosomes together to determine the passing of genes.
7 Tools of Genetic Engineering DNA Extraction- The remove of DNA from a cell.Cutting DNA- enzymes cut DNA at specific places.Separating DNA-Used to separate DNA fragmentsGel Electrophoresis.Copying DNA-Used to replicate DNA.Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)- Primers(pieces of DNA) are placed on each end of a piece of DNA to tell the polymerase where to bind and start replicating the DNA segment.
8 PedigreeA pedigree is a chart which shows the genetic relationships within a family, can be used to track genetic traits and disorders.
9 DNA Fingerprinting Human Genome Project Gene Therapy The analysis of sections of DNA that have no known function, but vary widely from person to person and can be used to identify individuals.Human Genome ProjectThe sequencing of human DNA.Gene TherapyA process that can be used fix or replace faulty genes with a normal working gene.