Presentation on theme: "Scientific method Compare hypothesis, constants, control, variable and conclusion How can we increase validity of a scientific experiment? Why are controls."— Presentation transcript:
Scientific method Compare hypothesis, constants, control, variable and conclusion How can we increase validity of a scientific experiment? Why are controls required? What about constants? How would you define independent factor? Dependent? How would you know which is which?
Characteristics of Life List the 8 characteristics Which is/are not essential for an individual yet is for the species? Define homeostasis Define metabolism How are these two concepts linked?
Organization of life Describe the organization of living organisms from smallest to largest How do eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells differ? How are the organelles used by a eukaryotic cell?
Cells Describe the structure and function of the cell membrane How are materials transported through the membrane? What evidence would we look for to determine if active transport is occurring? Why? How does the cell membrane aid homeostasis?
Cells cont. How do cells recognize stimuli? Give an example of a stimuli for a cell Why would one cell respond to a specific stimuli (hormone, drug) while another will not?
Cellular energy production Name two energy releasing reactions How is each energy releasing reaction accomplished? How do the two reactions differ? How would a decrease in light affect oxygen production in a plant cell? Sugar production? How about an animal cell? How would a decrease in oxygen supply affect carbon dioxide production in an animal cell? Plant cell?
Cellular energy releasing cont. Name 4 body systems linked to cellular respiration. State the importance of each system How are photosynthesis and cellular respiration linked to the ecosystem?
Enzymes State the function of enzymes Describe how enzymes function
Enzymes Interpret the graph How can we explain the loss of enzyme function? What else affects enzyme rate? What general statement can be made about enzymes?
Enzymes Explain why the rate of reaction is not increasing What change can we make to increase the rate of reaction?
Molecular Genetics How would you define heredity? How do chromosomes carry hereditary material? Describe the structure of DNA Describe the base pairings in DNA How does DNA replicate? Where in the body does a mutation have to take place in order for offspring to receive the changed gene?
Protein Synthesis Where are the instructions for proteins located in a cell? Where are proteins synthesized in a cell? How does the code get to the ribosome? How would a change in the base sequence affect protein shape? Protein function? Explain Describe the effect the environment has on genes. Give an example
Genetics and Evolution How can we use genetics to determine evolutionary relationships? How can genetics explain Darwin’s theory of natural selection?
Genetic Engineering How can we compare DNA of different organisms? State the function of restriction enzymes How are restriction enzymes used in genetic research? How is a transgenic organism created? Compare a clone and its donor genetically
Human Systems List the different organ systems in the human body Choose two and explain how they work together to maintain homeostasis
Immunology How does the immune system maintain homeostasis? How does the immune system recognize pathogens? Once a pathogen has been fought off why should we not be affect by it again? Explain the concept of a vaccine How is a vaccine an example of active immunity? How does passive immunity differ? Give an example
Malfunctions of the Immune system List malfunctions of the immune system How does HIV infection lead to a malfunction of the immune system? How is HIV treated? Cured?
Regulatory Systems Name the two regulatory systems How do they differ? How do neurons communicate? How do endocrine glands communicate with body cells? Why do some cells respond to hormones while others do not?
Regulatory Systems cont. Describe how the two hormones work together to maintain homeostasis How is negative feedback different?
Reproduction How do sexual and asexual reproduction differ? Compare and contrast mitosis and meiosis How is variation in a species achieved in asexual reproduction? In sexual? Where are gametes produced? Define fertilization
Development Where does a human fetus develop? How does a zygote become a multi-cellular organism? How is it possible for every cell in an embryo to have the same genetics yet look and function differently? Describe the function of the placenta Describe the function of the umbilical cord
Development cont. Why does a pregnant woman have to be concerned about what she ingests? How are identical twins different from fraternal twins?
Ecology How do biotic factors depend on abiotic factors? How are abiotic factors dependent of biotic factors? Compare food chains and food webs in terms of stability
Ecology How is energy brought into the ecosystem? How does energy change through trophic levels? Why is there less energy available at every level? How could you express the flow of energy visually?
Ecology Which materials are recycled in an ecosystem? Which two chemical processes are involved in the carbon cycle? Compare producers and consumers What is the role of the autotroph? Decomposer?
Ecology Why does competition for resources exist? List resources competed for Define carrying capacity How is carrying capacity of a population set? How does competition limit population size?