Who was Qin Shihuangdi? “The First Qin Emperor” The rulers of powerful local states fought one another and ignored Zhou kings. One of these states was called Qin. Its ruler took over states one by one and declared himself Qin Shihuangdi
A Powerful Ruler Qin based his rule on the ideas of Legalism started by Hanfeizi. Consequences of disobedience~ Killed, harshly punished, & books were burned if they contained opposing views. Hanfeizi: Legalism
How was China Unified? Shihuangdi unified China Single system of writing Single system of money (currency) Roads and Canals were built to connect the empire
The Great Wall of China Northern China was bordered by the vast Gobi desert. Nomads lived in the Gobi. The nomads were known as the Xiongnu Xiongnu were masters of fighting on horseback. Qin Shihuangdi forced farmers to leave their fields and work on connecting and strengthening walls. The result…
Not quite…this famous Great Wall was built 1,500 years later, but Qin was responsible for parts of the wall and of course the idea! (1,500 miles long and ranges from 15-30 feet tall)
Why did the People Rebel? Many people viewed Qin Shihuangdi as a cruel, harsh leader. Aristocrats were angry because he limited their power. Scholars hated him for burning their writing. Farmers hated him for forcing them to build roads and the Great Wall. Four years after Shihuangdi died, the people overthrew his dynasty and a civil war followed…a new dynasty arose!
The Han Dynasty Developments during the Han dynasty improved life for all Chinese. Liu Bang Once a peasant, became a military leader and defeated his rivals. Declared himself Han Gaozu ~”Exalted Emperor of the Han.” Used censors and divided the empire into provinces and counties.
What was the Civil Service? The Han reached its peak under the leadership of Han Wudi, which means “Martial Emperor of the Han.” He wanted talented people to fill government posts, job seekers had to take difficult tests to qualify for openings in the bureaucracy.
Wudi’s Legacy Wudi’s tests became the civil service examinations. This system lasted for 2,000 years. Favored rich because …. Students preparing for the test learned law, history and the teachings of Confucius. Only one in five passed.
The Chinese Empire Grows The population increased from 20 million to about 60 million during Han Wudi’s rule. Because farmers had to divide their land among more and more sons, by the middle of the Han dynasty the average farmer had only about one acre of land… not enough to raise their family.
Tenant Farmers As a result, farm families had to sell their land to aristocrats and work on the land. Tenant farmers paid rent in crops. China’s empire continued to grow in size and secure their borders resulting in a period of peace for almost 150 years.
An Era of Inventions Water Wheel to grind more grain Iron drill bits to mine more salt Rudder to move the sail of shipsPaper
Medicine Doctors discovered certain foods prevented disease. Used herbs to cure illnesses. Eased pain by sticking thin needle’s into patient’s skin ~acupuncture.
The Silk Road The Silk Road carried Chinese goods as far as Greece and Rome. Carried only high price goods such as silk, spices, tea, and porcelain. The Silk Road, or Silk Route, is a series of trade routes through regions of the Asian continent mainly connecting Chang'an (today's Xi'an) in China, with Asia Minor and the Mediterranean.
The Han Dynasty Falls Han Emperors after Wudi were foolish Aristocrats gained more power and land Wars, rebellions against emperor As a result… Buddhist ideas helped people cope with the stress and their fear during this state of disorder…
The Fall of the Han dynasty Unrest in China helped Buddhism Spread. Merchants and teachers brought Buddhism from India to China. In time Buddhism became very popular mostly because of the fall of the Han dynasty.