Presentation on theme: "Topic 2: Voting & Elections (Part 2). Part 3: Nominations Why is the nominating process a critical first step in elections? Describe the self-announcement,"— Presentation transcript:
Part 3: Nominations Why is the nominating process a critical first step in elections? Describe the self-announcement, the caucus, and the convention nominating methods. Why is the direct primary the principal nominating method? Why do some candidates use the petition as a nominating device?
Critical First Step The election process occurs in two steps: 1. Nomination, in which the field of candidates is narrowed 2. General election, the regularly scheduled election where voters make their final choice
The Direct Primary Nonpartisan Primary Candidates are not identified by party Runoff Primary If a required majority is not met, the two people with the most votes run again Closed Primary Party members only Types of Direct PrimariesOpen Primary Any qualified voter
Petition Candidates must gather a required number of signatures. This is a requirement for most minor party and independent candidates. Usually used at the local level to nominate for school posts and municipal offices.
Part 4: Elections What role do precincts and polling places play in the election process? How can voters cast their ballots? What role do voting machines and other innovations play in the election process? What are the sources, and common problems, with campaign spending? How do federal laws regulate spending? What loopholes exist in today’s campaign finance laws?
The Administration of Elections Congress sets the time, place, and manner of congressional and presidential elections. Congress has chosen the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November every 2 years for congressional elections, (4 for presidential). States determine the details of the election of State and local officials. Most States provide absentee /early voting for voters who are unable to get to their regular polling places on election day. Federal & State Regulations
Precincts and Polling Places Precincts A precinct is a voting district. Precincts are the smallest geographic units used to carry out elections. Polling Places A polling place is where the voters who live in a precinct go to vote. Polling places are supposed to be located conveniently for voters.
Voting Machines and Innovations Electronic vote counting has been in use since the 1960s. Punch-card ballots are often used to cast votes. Vote-by-mail elections have come into use in recent years. Online voting is a trend that may be encountered in the near future.
Sources of Funding Small contributor s Wealthy supporters Nonparty groups such as PACs Temporary fund-raising organization s Candidates Government subsidies Private and Public Sources of Campaign Money
The Federal Election Commission The Federal Election Commission (FEC) enforces: the timely disclosure of campaign finance information limits on campaign contributions limits on campaign expenditures provisions for public funding of presidential campaigns
Loopholes in the Law “More loophole than law…” —Lyndon Johnson Soft money—money given to State and local party organizations for “party-building activities” that is filtered to presidential or congressional campaigns. $500 million was given to campaigns in this way in 2000. Independent campaign spending—a person unrelated and unconnected to a candidate or party can spend as much money as they want to benefit or work against candidates. Issue ads—take a stand on certain issues in order to criticize or support a certain candidate without actually mentioning that person’s name.