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Chapter © 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning Introduction to Risk Management 25.1 25.1Understanding Risk 25.2 25.2Managing Risk 25
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 2 Chapter 25 Lesson 25.1 Understanding Risk GOALS Explain risk and the different types of risk. Explain the concept of insurance and how risks are spread.
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 3 Chapter 25 Types of Risk Pure risk Speculative risk Economic risk Insurable risk
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 4 Chapter 25 Pure Risk Pure risk is a chance of loss with no chance for gain. Pure risks are random (can happen to anyone) and result in loss (not gain). Examples of pure risk include the following: Accidents resulting in physical injury and damage to property Illnesses that people get throughout life, as a part of aging Acts of nature, resulting in damage to persons and property
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 5 Chapter 25 Speculative Risk A speculative risk may result in either gain or loss. Because speculative risks are not “accidental” or random, and may result in either gain or loss, you cannot protect yourself from losses in a traditional manner. While hedging (making an investment to help offset against loss) is a technique used to help reduce losses from such risky acts, it does not reduce the risk itself.
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 6 Chapter 25 Economic Risk Economic risk may result in gain or loss because of changing economic conditions. For example, when the business cycle is in a period of recovery or growth, most people and businesses are realizing gains in their financial position. However, the economy can slow down. During this time, people lose jobs and are unable to buy goods and services. As a result, many businesses find themselves unable to meet their debts.
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 7 Chapter 25 Insurable Risk You can reduce negative consequences of a pure risk by purchasing insurance. Insurance is a method for spreading individual risk among a large group of people to make losses more affordable for all. An insurable risk is a pure risk that is faced by a large number of people and for which the amount of the loss can be predicted.
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 8 Chapter 25 Insurable Risk Insurance companies can make these predictions by examining the amount of loss incurred from past events, such as flooding. To purchase insurance, you must have an insurable interest to protect. An insurable interest is any financial interest in life or property such that, if the life or property were lost or harmed, the insured would suffer financially. There are three major insurable risks: personal, property, and liability. (continued)
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 9 Chapter 25 Personal Risk A personal risk is the chance of loss involving your income and standard of living. You can protect yourself from personal risks by buying life, health, and disability insurance. In addition, insurance against personal risks protects others who are depending on your income to provide food, clothing, shelter, and the comforts of life.
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 10 Chapter 25 Property Risk The chance of loss or harm to personal or real property is called property risk. For example, your home, car, or other possessions could be damaged or destroyed by fire, theft, wind, rain, accident, and other hazards. To protect against such risks, you can buy property insurance.
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 11 Chapter 25 Liability Risk A liability risk is the chance of loss that may occur when your errors or actions result in injuries to others or damages to their property. For example, you could accidentally cause injury or damage to others or their property by your conduct while driving a car. Or a person could fall because of your home’s crumbling front steps and break an arm. Liability insurance will protect you when others sue you for injuring them or damaging their property.
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 12 Chapter 25 Spreading the Risk An insurance company, or insurer, is a business that agrees to pay the cost of potential future losses in exchange for regular fee payments. When people buy insurance, they join a risk-sharing group by purchasing a written insurance contract (a policy).
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 13 Chapter 25 Spreading the Risk Under the policy, the insurer agrees to assume an identified risk for a fee, called the premium, usually paid at regular intervals by the owner of the policy (the policyholder). The insurer collects insurance premiums from policyholders under the assumption that only a few policyholders will have financial losses at any given time. (continued)
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 14 Chapter 25 Indemnification Insurance is not meant to enrich—only to compensate for actual losses incurred. This principle is called indemnification. Indemnification means putting the policyholder back in the same financial condition he or she was in before the loss occurred.
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 15 Chapter 25 Insurance Terminology Actuarial table Actuary Beneficiary Benefits Cash value Claim Coverage Deductible Exclusions Face amount Grace period Hazard Insurance agent Insured Insurer Loss Peril Probability Proof of loss Standard policy Unearned premium
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning Car Insurance must know “HAVE TO HAVE” coverage Personal Injury Protection Property Protection Residual Liability SLIDE 16 Chapter 25
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning Car Insurance must know “YOU CHOOSE” Coverage Collision Regular, Broad, Limited Comprehensive Uninsured Motorist Road Service Car Rental SLIDE 17 Chapter 25
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning Car Insurance must know $$$ if Insurance is determined by: Location Age & Driving Experience Amount & Type of Driving you do Car (AGE, COST, REPAIRABILITY) Amount of coverage you select At-Fault Accidents # of traffic violations SLIDE 18 Chapter 25
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning Car Insurance must know Auto Insurance MUST KNOW Collision This pays for damage to your car if it rolls over or collides with something. Without collision coverage, damages to your car are not covered. Collision coverage comes in three forms: Regular or standard - pays for damage to your vehicle, regardless of who is at fault, except that you always pay the deductible. SLIDE 19 Chapter 25
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning Car Insurance must know Collision (cont.) Collision coverage comes in three forms: Broad - pays for damage to your vehicle regardless of who is at fault except that you must pay the deductible if you are mostly at fault. Limited - pays for damage to your vehicle only if you were not mostly at fault in an accident. Collision insurance usually includes a deductible. $ you pay toward cost of repair or replacement SLIDE 20 Chapter 25
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning Car Insurance must know Comprehensive This pays for damage to your car resulting from causes other than collision, such as fire, theft and crashes with deer. Uninsured Motorist. This pays what you would be legally entitled to collect for injuries caused by an uninsured driver. SLIDE 21 Chapter 25
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning Car Insurance must know Road Service This pays for the cost of help when your car is disabled on the road. It includes towing charges and other emergency services Car Rental Pays for renting a car while yours is being repaired. SLIDE 22 Chapter 25
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning Why Are Young Drivers Rates So High? Age Group accident each year 16-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65-74 75+ Percent of drivers involved in an auto 24% 18% 12% 6% 7% SLIDE 23 Chapter 25
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 24 Chapter 25 Lesson 25.2 Managing Risk GOALS Discuss the risk-management process. Explain how to create a risk-management plan. Discuss ways to reduce the costs of insurance.
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 25 Chapter 25 Risk Management Is a Process While you cannot eliminate risk, you can manage it so that a loss does not become financially devastating. Risk management is an organized strategy for controlling financial loss from pure risks and insurable risks.
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 26 Chapter 25 Risk Assessment Risk management begins with a systematic study of the risks that you face. It begins with risk assessment, or understanding the types of risk you will face and their potential consequences. Risk assessment is a three-step process: Step 1: Identify risks of loss Step 2: Assess seriousness of risks Step 3: Handle risks
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 27 Chapter 25 Techniques for Handling Risks Risk shifting Risk avoidance Risk reduction Risk assumption
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 28 Chapter 25 Risk Shifting Risk shifting, also called risk transfer, occurs when you buy insurance to cover financial losses caused by damaging events, such as fire, theft, injury, or death. By making premium payments, you shift the risk of major financial loss to the insurance company.
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 29 Chapter 25 Risk Avoidance Risk avoidance lowers the chance for loss by not doing the activity that could result in the loss. Examples: Instead of having a party at your house and risking damage, you could reserve a section of a restaurant. Instead of participating in a dangerous sport, you could go camping.
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 30 Chapter 25 Risk Reduction Risk reduction lowers the chance of loss by taking measures to lessen the frequency or severity of losses that may occur. For example, you may put studded snow tires on your car, install fire alarms or sprinklers in your home, or use seat belts. All these steps would lessen the financial risk of potential losses.
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 31 Chapter 25 Risk Assumption Risk assumption is the process of accepting the consequences of risk. To help cushion your financial burden, you could establish a monetary fund to cover the cost of a loss. People who self-insure plan to absorb the costs of some risks themselves. This strategy can reduce the cost of insurance.
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 32 Chapter 25 The Risk-Management Plan List identified risks. List assessment of risks’ financial impact. List techniques to manage each risk.
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 33 Chapter 25 Reducing Insurance Costs Increase deductibles. A deductible is the specified amount of a loss that you must pay. Generally, the higher the deductible, the lower the insurance premium. Purchase group insurance. The premiums for group plans are usually considerably lower than for an individual plan.
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 34 Chapter 25 Reducing Insurance Costs Consider payment options. Monthly payments usually contain an extra charge, while semiannual payments do not. Having premiums automatically deducted from your checking account or paying electronically may reduce your costs. (continued)
© 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning SLIDE 35 Chapter 25 Reducing Insurance Costs Look for discount opportunities. Many insurance companies offer discounts for special conditions. Comparison shop. Get quotes from several insurers. Be sure to give each one the same information so you can compare exact coverage and costs. (continued)
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