Lesson 1 Guiding Question What features help define Ethiopia’s culture?
Ethiopia’s History Ethiopia’s history written down by monks –Lived in monasteries –Wrote in a language called Geez –Studied Christianity
Christianity in Ethiopia Came through trade along Nile River and Red Sea –Missionaries from Egypt Egyptian Christians split from rest of Christian Church –Formed Coptic Christian Church –Took hold in Ethiopia as well
Limited Contact Not much contact with Christians in other parts of the world –Mountains surround Ethiopia –Muslim Arabs did not allow travel along Nile River
Muslim Arabs Take Control Built cities along Red Sea –Controlled all trade in North Africa –Took over coastal regions –Ethiopian Christians moved further inland –Surrounded by Muslim Arabs Even less contact with other Christians
A Unique Christianity Churches of Lalibela –Capital city of Ethiopia for 300 years –Eleven churches built Cut out of solid rock Built below the ground Ethiopia’s religion today –35% Christians –45% Muslims
Contrasts in Daily Life Life in the countryside –10% of population –Hard to find electricity and running water –Own more donkeys than cars Life in the cities –Addis Ababa is the capital city Almost 3 million people –Running water, electricity, modern hospitals, a university, and a museum
Lesson 1 Guiding Question What features help define Ethiopia’s culture? –Ethiopia’s culture is greatly influenced by Christianity, Islam, and the country’s combination of urban and rural lifestyles.
Lesson 2 Guiding Question How have historical events affected the culture of Tanzania?
Tanzania’s History On the Indian Ocean –Center of trade Ruled by: –Arabs –Germans –British Became independent in 1961 –Joined with Zanzibar to form Tanzania
Problems With Independence First president, Julius Nyerere, faced many challenges –Many ethnic groups Lingua franca –Swahili –New political system One-party system –Economy Hard work would end poverty Did not want to depend on other countries
Ujamaa “Togetherness” in Swahili –Farmers work together in villages and share resources Produce more crops Provide education
Nyerere Retires 1985 Tanzania changed greatly –National language –Very little ethnic conflict –Education had improved More people could read and write
Progress and Continued Reform Ujamaa program failed –Changed to allow farmers to use new methods to produce cash crops Economy was failing –Privatization Sale of government-owned industries to private companies –Run telephone companies and airline industries Changed one-party system in 1992 –Now a multi-party system
Lesson 2 Guiding Question How have historical events affected the culture of Tanzania? –Tanzania’s history of colonialism and reforms since independence have greatly affected the culture, economics, language, and politics of the country.