Presentation on theme: "Ionic Compounds (p. 176 – 180, 203 – 211) Ionic Compounds l Most of the rocks and minerals that make up Earth’s crust consist of positive and negative."— Presentation transcript:
Ionic Compounds l Most of the rocks and minerals that make up Earth’s crust consist of positive and negative ions held together by ionic bonding. l An ionic compound is composed of positive and negative ions that are combined so that the numbers of positive and negative charges are equal. l Most ionic compounds exist as crystalline solids
Ionic Compounds l The chemical formula of an ionic compound merely represents the simplest ratio of the compound’s combined ions that gives electrical neutrality. l A formula unit is the simplest collection of atoms from which an ionic compound’s formula can be established.
Common Ion Charges 1+ 2+3+NA3-2-1- 0 Ionic Nomenclature varies
Binary Ionic compounds l Made of two different elements that have formed ions l End in -ide
Monatomic ions – p. 205 l Ions formed from a single atom l Metals from positive monatomic ions l Nonmetals form negative monatomic ions ( nonmetal ions end in –ide, ex. Chlorine becomes the chloride ion)
Variable oxidation #’s l Some elements have more than one oxidation number. l Groups 3 - 12, tin, lead. The stock system of nomenclature uses roman numerals to indicate the oxidation number. l (p.205)
Al 3+ O 2- Al 2 O 3 (6 +) + (6-) = 0 Formula isAl 2 O 3
Write the formulas for these l Lithium sulfide l tin (II) oxide l tin (IV) oxide l Magnesium fluoride l Silver chloride l Iron (III) phosphide l Iron (III) sulfide l Potassium iodide
Write the formulas for these l Sodium sulfide l Aluminum sulfide l Aluminum nitride l Copper (II) bromide l Iron (II) oxide l Lead (II) chloride l Mercury (II) sulfide
Compounds with polyatomic ions l Review the list on page 210 l All are negative except the ammonium ion l Most are oxyanions (contain oxygen) l When more than one polyatomic ion is in a compound, parentheses must be placed around the polyatomic ion.
Compounds with polyatomic ions l Copper (II) sulfate l calcium nitrate l barium nitrate l Ammonium chloride l ammonium sulfide l Lithium nitrate l Sodium carbonate l Potassium perchlorate
Naming Binary Ionic Compounds l Write the name of the cation first l Write the root of the anion, end in -ide l NaCl = sodium chloride l MgBr 2 = magnesium bromide l KI = potassium iodide l BaO = barium oxide
Naming Binary Ionic Compounds l The problem comes with the variable transition metals. l You must determine the roman numeral.
CuO CoCl 3 Cu 2 S Fe 2 O 3 SnCl 2 CrN Sc 3 P 2 PbO PbO 2
Ionic Compounds with polyatomic ions the ending of the polyatomic ion doesn’t change NaNO 3 CaSO 4 CuSO 3 (NH 4 ) 2 O LiCN Fe(OH) 3
(NH 4 ) 2 CO 3 NiPO 4 FeCrO 4 Pb 3 (PO 4 ) 2 l See Sample Problems 7-1,7-2,7-3 (p.207,209,211) l h.w. p. 236 # 27, 41,Handout p.2