Dissolved Gases Gases… - Nitrogen (N), oxygen (O 2 ), and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) - Gases can enter the ocean from streams, the atmosphere, underwater volcanoes, and organisms
Temperature & Dissolved Gases Temperature affects the amount of gas that dissolves in water. Gases dissolve more readily in cold water than in warm water. Example – glass of pop quickly going “flat” on a warm day Gases return to the atmosphere from the ocean; as temperature rises, less gas will remain dissolved & enters into the atmosphere
Dissolved Solids Solids… - Ocean water is 96.5% pure water or H 2 O - Ocean water is 3.5% dissolved solids - These dissolved solids, commonly called sea salts, give the ocean its salty taste. - Most abundant solids: chlorine, sodium, magnesium, sulfur, calcium, and potassium.
Salinity - Measure of the amount of dissolved solids in ocean water. Mainly salts. - Number of grams of dissolved solids per kilogram of ocean water. Example -- 40g in one kg of ocean water would equal 4% dissolved salts. - Evaporation and freezing increase the salinity.
Temperature -Mixing of ocean’s surface water distributes the heat downward. -0 to 300 meters, the temperature is relatively constant. -Surface temperature of tropical water = 30° C while polar water is below the freezing point of fresh water. - Beyond 300 meters, the temperature drops. -Thermocline - zone of rapid temperature change.
Density - Density = the ratio of the mass of a substance to the volume of the substance. Commonly expressed as grams per cubic centimeter for solids and liquids. - Equation for density --- D = M V (m = mass &v= volume) - Temperature and salinity affect the density of water. - Cold water = more dense water (sinks) - Warm water = less dense water (rises)
Color - Determined by the way it absorbs or reflects sunlight. - Only blue wavelengths tend to be reflected.