2 What is Learning?Learning – any relatively permanent change in behavior brought about by experience or practice.When people learn anything, some part of their brain is physically changed to record what they have learned.Any kind of change in the way an organism behaves is learning.Associative Learning- learning that certain events occur togetherClassical- two stimuliOperant- response and consequence
3 Pavlov and Classical Conditioning Ivan Pavlov – Russian physiologist (person who studies the workings of the body) who discovered classical conditioning through his work on digestion in dogs.Classical conditioning - learning to make a reflex response to a stimulus other than the original, natural stimulus that normally produces the reflex.Big Bang Theory Example
4 Classical Conditioning Concepts Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) - a naturally occurring stimulus that leads to an involuntary response.Unconditioned means “unlearned” or “naturally occurring.”Unconditioned response (UCR) - an involuntary response to a naturally occurring or unconditioned stimulus.UCS – air puff UCR - blink
5 Classical Conditioning Concepts Conditioned stimulus (CS) – starts as a neutral stimulus that becomes able to produce a learned (reflex) response by being paired with the original unconditioned stimulus.Conditioned means “learned.”Conditioned response (CR) - learned reflex response to a conditioned stimulus.Sometimes called a conditioned reflex.CS – toneCR – blink to the tone
6 Pavlov’s classic experiment in conditioning AP Classical conditioning phenomena Acquisition - the repeatedpairing of the NS and the UCS; the organism is in the process of acquiring learning.
7 Classical Conditioning Concepts Stimulus generalization – a tendency to respond to similar stimuli as the conditioned stimulusStimulus discrimination – the ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and other similar stimuli
8 Classical Conditioning Concepts Spontaneous recovery – the reappearance of a learned response after extinction has occurred.Learning is a relatively permanent change in behavior.Extinction - the disappearance or weakening of a learned response following the removal or absence of the unconditioned stimulus (in classical conditioning) or the removal of a reinforcer (in operant conditioning).
9 Conditioned emotional response AP Emotional learning…John Watson and Little Albert
10 Taste AversionConditioned taste aversion - development of a nausea or aversive response to a particular taste because that taste was followed by a nausea reaction, occurring after only one association.Biological preparedness – (John Garcia) the tendency of animals to learn certain associations, such as taste and nausea, with only one or few pairings due to the survival value of the learning.
11 Operant ConditioningOperant conditioning – a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisherDifference between Classical and Operant Conditioning
12 B. F. Skinner’s Contribution Behaviorist; wanted to study only observable, measurable behavior.Gave “operant conditioning” its name.Operant - any behavior that is voluntary.Learning depends on what happens after the response — the consequence.
13 Skinner’s contribution to operant conditioning AP Key contributorsSkinner’s Operant Chamber
14 ReinforcementReinforcement - any event or stimulus, that when following a response, increases the probability that the response will occur again.Primary reinforcer - any reinforcer that is naturally reinforcing by meeting a basic biological need, such as hunger, thirst, or touch.Secondary reinforcer - any reinforcer that becomes reinforcing after being paired with a primary reinforcer, such as praise, tokens, gold stars, or money.They are learnedImmediate vs. Delayed Reinforcement
15 Positive and Negative Reinforcement Positive reinforcement – increases behaviors by presenting positive stimuli (food), a positive reinforcer is anything that when presented after a response strengthens that responseExample: correct response= candy!Negative reinforcement – increases behavior by the removal, escape from, or avoidance of an unpleasant stimulus.Homework pass, NOT a punishment!Example: Taking aspirin for a headache is negatively reinforced – removal of headache!
16 ShapingShaping - the reinforcement of simple steps in behavior that lead to a desired, more complex behavior.Successive approximations - small steps in behavior, one after the other, that lead to a particular goal behavior.Training whales or other animals
17 Other Operant Conditioning Concepts Extinction – occurs if the behavior (response) is not reinforced.Operantly conditioned responses also can be generalized to stimuli that are only similar to the original stimulus.Spotaneous recovery (reoccurrence of a once extinguished response) also happens in classical conditioning.Overjustification- excessive rewards may destroy intrinsic motivation (desire to do well for own sake)They already do it! “excessive rewards”One way to deal with a child’s tempertantrum is to ignore it. The lack ofreinforcement for the tantrum behaviorwill eventually result in extinction.
18 Important concepts in operant conditioning AP Differences between types of learning
19 Schedules of Reinforcement Continuous reinforcement - the reinforcement of each and every correct response.Partial (intermittent) reinforcement effect - the tendency for a response that is reinforced after some, but not all, correct responses to be very resistant to extinction.
20 Schedules of Reinforcement Fixed ratio schedule of reinforcement - schedule of reinforcement in which the number of responses required for reinforcement is always the same.FR-5 would indicate that every 5th response would be given reinforcement. (after every 5th drink bought at the gas station would get you a free drink) -high rate of responseVariable ratio schedule of reinforcement - schedule of reinforcement in which the number of responses required for reinforcement is different for each trial or event. An average number of responses.VR-5 would indicate that a response would be given on average of every 5th response 1st through 10th. (slot machines in Vegas) produces high rates of fairly steady responses.
21 Schedules of Reinforcement Fixed interval schedule – schedule of reinforcement in which the interval of time that must pass before reinforcement becomes possible is always the same.FI-5 would indicate that reinforcement would be given every five minutes. (bells indicate class change- same time- students start to pack up in anticipation) -not a steady rate of responseVariable interval schedule of reinforcement - in which the interval of time that must pass before reinforcement becomes possible is different for each trial or event.VI-5 would indicate that ON AVERAGE, every 5 minutes reinforcement would be given -produces slow steady responses because there is no idea when the reinforcement will be coming.(points for participation for raising your hand- not sure when they will be awarded, but keep trying to get the points.)
22 PunishmentPunishment - any event or object that, when following a response, makes that response less likely to happen again.Positive Punishment or Punishment by application- the punishment of a response by the addition or experiencing of an unpleasant stimulus.Negative Punishment or Omission Training the punishment of a response by the removal of a pleasurable stimulus.
23 How to Make Punishment More Effective Punishment should immediately follow the behavior it is meant to punish.Punishment should be consistent.Punishment of the wrong behavior should be paired, whenever possible, with reinforcement of the right behavior.
24 How punishment affects behavior AP Predict the effects of operant conditioning
25 Punishment tells you what not to do; How punishment affects behaviorAP Predict the effects of operant conditioningPunishment tells you what not to do;Reinforcement tells you what to do!!!
26 MotivationIntrinsic motivation- the desire to perform a behavior for its own sake- self fulfillment or self enjoyment are the driving factors- practicing a sport because you love the sport Extrinsic motivation- the desire to perform a behavior to receive promised rewards or avoid threatened punishment- going to work, practicing a sport to gain a starting position
27 Observational Learning Observational learning - learning new behavior by watching othersDon’t run across the highwayModeling- the processing observing and imitating behaviors (monkey see, monkey do)#swag, clothingMirror Neurons- fire when performing and observing others doing the activity (imitation and empathy)Harder to smile when seeing a frown
28 Bandura’s classic Bobo doll study AP Essentials of insight, latent, & social learning
29 Application of Observational Learning Prosocial Effects- positive, constructive, and helpful behavior can be modeled to help peopleExamples?Antisocial Effects- negative and hurtful behavior that we tend to pick upTelevision?