Presentation on theme: "Phonological Rules Rules about how sounds may or may not go together in a language English: Words may not start with two stop consonants German: Devoicing."— Presentation transcript:
1 Phonological RulesRules about how sounds may or may not go together in a languageEnglish: Words may not start with two stop consonantsGerman: Devoicing rule—voiced consonants at the ends of words are devoiced, e.g. /g/--/k/Turkish: Vowel harmony—in two syllable words the 2nd vowel is dependent on the first (front vowels and back vowels go together)
2 Morphology Morphemes—smallest units of meaning in a language Words (lexemes) are open class morphemesWord endings: plural s, past –ed, prefixes and suffixes, infixes are closed class morphemesTypically convey tense, verb agreement, grammatical gender, number, negationEnglish is morphologically impoverished
3 Morphophonology Morphology and phonology are not independent: English plural: Cats /s/ , dogs /z/, finches /Iz/Tagalog future: reduplication ruleBili (buy), bibili (will buy)Kuha (get) kukuha (will get)Sulat (write) susulate (will write)
4 SemanticsMeanings of words and sentences and the relations between words and sentencesSome meaning relations:Tautology: a necessarily true sentence“A widower has no wife.”Contradiction: a necessarily false sentence“A widower has a wife.”Anomaly: a sentence with no truth value“The widower’s wife is a linguist.”Synonymy: two sentences that have the same truth conditions“I am a widower.”“My wife passed away.”
5 SyntaxRules of the language specifying how sounds, morphemes, and words may be combined to form meaningful sentences.Rules must generate all of the grammatical sentences in a language, and none of the ungrammatical onesRelated to, but separable from semantics.Colorless green ideas sleep furiously.*Green furiously sleep ideas colorless.Charles ate a sandwich.*Charles ate sandwich.
6 Syntax: Noam Chomsky’s Legacy Revolutionized the study of languageLanguage acquisition was the inspirationBelieved that the ability to learn syntax is innate in humans (the “LAD”)Linguist’s task is to describe this innate knowledge
7 Transformational Grammar Phrase structure rules--Rules that specify the permissible sequences of constituents (words, phrases, etc.) in a sentence--Each rule “rewrites” a constituent into one or more other constituentsTransformational rulesApply to entire strings of constituents by adding, deleting, or rearranging constituents into new sequences.Deep Structure vs. Surface Structure: Distinction between the underlying representation of a sentence and it’s surface form, that is, what you say.
8 Deep Structure vs. Surface Structure: Why? Three basic kinds pieces of evidence:Ambiguous sentences: “Visiting relatives can be boring.” “The zoo contained young llamas and gnus.”Similar surface form but not meaning: “John is eager to please” vs. “John is easy to please.”Similar meaning but not surface form: “Kim played the guitar.” and “The guitar was played by Kim.”