Nutrition for kids Why is nutrition relevant? Schedule – pre- determined meals Choice?
Poor eating habits and inactive lifestyles rather than heredity Sweetened soft drinks, food and meals of high energy, low nutrient density and large portion sizes
Your role Informative Importance of meals – sociability Enjoy food – yes enjoy! Exposure to taste, smell, color, and texture Role model
In your lifetime… 6 years eating 70,000 meals 60 tons of food Serving Sizes
Healthy People 2020 Objectives for Nutrition – Children Chronic diseases associated with diet and weight Availability of information Two years and older – daily servings of fruit & vegetables (dark green or orange) Two years and older – whole grains, less than 10% of calories from saturated fat, 30% calories from total fat Two years and older – 2400mg or less of sodium Two years and older – calcium intake Six years to adolescence – intake of meals and snacks at school - wisely choices
Back to the Basics Nutrients – 6 categories Lipids/fat, protein, carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins & water Calories Periods of rapid growth – age 10 & 13
Carbohydrates The primary function of dietary carbohydrate is to supply energy to body cells. Cells in the brain, nervous system, and blood, use only carbohydrates for fuel Children may require up to 60% of total caloric intake Soft drinks = high glycemic index (obesity link)
Dietary Fiber Nondigestible carbohydrates Imperative for normal laxation Childhood & adolescence – child’s age plus 5g per day “age plus 5” rule (FDA 2002).
Proteins A compound made of amino acids that contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen Form important parts of muscles, bones, blood, enzymes, some hormones and cell membranes; repair tissue; regulate water and acid-base balance; help in growth; supply energy 10 – 20 % of child’s total caloric intake Average 60g per day
Fats Fats supply energy, insulate the body, support and cushion organs, absorb fat- soluble vitamins, add flavor and texture to foods Age two – fat 20-25% of total diet Infants and young children – not restricted dietary fat intake
Types and Sources of Fats Saturated fat = solid at room temperature ◦ Found primarily in animal foods and palm and coconut oils ◦ Leading sources in our diets are: red meats, whole milk, cheese, hot dogs and lunch meats
Monounsaturated fat = liquid at room temperature ◦ Found in certain vegetables, nuts, and vegetable oils (olive, canola, safflower, & peanut oils Polyunsaturated fat = liquid at room temperature ◦ Found in certain vegetables, nuts, and vegetable oils (soybean, corn, & cottonseed oils) and in fatty fish
Trans Fatty Acids Hydrogenation Trans fatty acids have an atypical shape that affects their chemical activity Leading sources in our diet are: french fries, fried chicken, cakes, cookies, pastries, doughnuts, chips, & stick margarine
Water Human body is composed mostly of water; you can live only a few days without water Adequate intake to maintain hydration 6 – 8 glasses of water (Male teens may need up to 11) Consume additional fluids for activity – perspire and require more than adults
Vitamins and Minerals Vitamins - substances needed in small amounts to help promote and regulate chemical reactions and processes in body cells. Vitamin A – growth & enhancement of the immune system Minerals = compounds needed in small amounts for regulation, growth, and maintenance of body tissues and functions Iron – deficiency in infants, adolescent males, and females during childbearing years (Hales, 1999, 167). Less than half preschoolers met their iron recommendation Majority of primary school children (64%) met their recommendation