Presentation on theme: "Saturday Study Session 2 Theme of the day: Information Transfer"— Presentation transcript:
1 Saturday Study Session 2 Theme of the day: Information Transfer Session 1 – Cell signaling, Endocrine system, and Thermoregulation
2 Clue: source = Starting point Question 1 AnswerDClue: source = Starting pointPlease help students understand the relationship between the steps and the possible answers. This one word should narrowing thinking down immediately to answers C and D.
3 Step 1: ReceptionPlease remind students that ligands can be molecules or forms of Energy. If a molecule, molecules have distinct shapes and masses. If forms of energy, light, wave, pressure, etc.
4 Step 2: TransductionPlease stress the need for conformational shape change. This identifies if this is the target tissue or not. If no conformational shape change occurs in the receptor protein; that is not the intended target.
5 Step 3: ResponseMake sure students understand it is either an enzyme being turned off/on or a process, such as transcription or replication, being turned on/off.
7 Secondary Messenger First messenger (signal molecule such as epinephrine)AdenylylcyclaseG proteinG-protein-linkedreceptorGTPATPSecondmessengercAMPHelp students see the location and roleProteinkinase ACellular responses
8 Secondary Messenger cAMP Adenylyl cyclasePhosphodiesterasePyrophosphateH2OPPiATPCyclic AMPAMPPlease help students see this is an RNA Adenine molecule that has circled up. It could also be an ATP or ADP that has lost phosphates.
9 Clue: through the plasma membrane Question 3 answerAClue: through the plasma membrane
10 Intracellular receptors Please remind students that secondary messengers are different from hormone (lipid based) ligands which can diffuse across the lipid bi-layer and meet up with its receptor protein. This are mostly associated with transcription of mRNA to generate protein synthesis.
11 Clue: numerous hormones to help regulate Question 4 answerBClue: numerous hormones to help regulatePlease help students understand this concept. If there exists numerous hormones to help regulate, then chances are good the all do something different.
12 Examples of Negative Feedback Loops HypothalamusTRHAnteriorpituitaryTSHPlease just stress that a molecule in excess is traveling back to in activate a process the is in action currently.ThyroidT3T4
13 Positive Feedback Loop Please just focus on the fact that an end product is going back an amplifying a process that is currently in action.
14 Staying between the lines of life by using antagonistic signals. Death may occur out here. _________________________________ Life Can exist. State rises toward limit; so process is stopped by a signal andgets going in the opposite direction. Approach other limit so stopped and reversed by another signal _________________________________
15 Clue: antagonistic hormones Question 5 answerCClue: antagonistic hormonesAnswer A is incorrect because Thyroxine is metabolism and PTH is calcium. Calcitonin would be the PTH antagonist.Answer B is incorrect because Oxytocin and Prolactin are synergistic in the breast during lactation.Answer D is incorrect because Progesterone and estrogen are complimentary in female reproductive cycles.
16 Blood Glucose regulation in the human body Body cellstake up moreglucose.InsulinBeta cells ofpancreasrelease insulininto the blood.Liver takesup glucoseand stores itas glycogen.STIMULUS:Rising blood glucoselevel (for instance, aftereating a carbohydrate-rich meal)Blood glucose leveldeclines to set point;stimulus for insulinrelease diminishes.Homeostasis:Blood glucose level(about 90 mg/100 mL)Blood glucose levelrises to set point;stimulus for glucagonrelease diminishes.STIMULUS:Dropping blood glucoselevel (for instance, afterskipping a meal)Please make sure students understand the liver is the storage organ and the hormone source is the pancreas.Alpha cells of pancreasrelease glucagon intothe blood.Liver breaksdown glycogenand releasesglucose into theblood.Glucagon
17 Clue: effector = bodily Question 6 answerAClue: effector = bodilyPlease help students understand the difference between answer A and answers B and C. B and C are not bodily functions. They are behaviors that must be initiated, such as let me do some jumping jacks or let me move into the sun. Shivering is an non-mental response (autonomic). It happens on its own. Answer D is a positive feedback loop.
18 Internal body temperature Temperature controlThermostat inhypothalamusactivates coolingmechanisms.Sweat glands secretesweat that evaporates,cooling the body.Blood vesselsin skin dilate:capillaries fillwith warm blood;heat radiates fromskin surface.Increased bodytemperature (suchas when exercisingor in hotsurroundings)Body temperaturedecreases;thermostatshuts off coolingmechanisms.Homeostasis:Internal body temperatureof approximately 36–38°CBody temperatureincreases;thermostatshuts off warmingmechanisms.Decreased bodytemperature(such as whenin coldsurroundings)Please explain and stress the hypothalamus’ role in temperature regulation.Blood vessels in skinconstrict, diverting bloodfrom skin to deeper tissuesand reducing heat lossfrom skin surface.Thermostat inhypothalamusactivateswarmingmechanisms.Skeletal muscles rapidlycontract, causing shivering,which generates heat.
19 Math Grid In Answer The answer is: 50 mLs. Soulution: Ci Vi = Cf Vf Therefore, (1.0 M)(?) = (0.05 M)(1000mL)? = (0.05 M)(1000 mL)(1.0 M)? = 50 mL
20 Short Free Response 1 (4 points possible) Possible points awarded for:Discussion of negative back being a process in action being stopped and another process taking in in the opposite direction. (1 pt.)Example (1 pt.)Discussion of positive being a process in action being amplified by a product of the same reaction. (1 pt.)
21 Examples of Negative Feedback Loops HypothalamusTRHAnteriorpituitaryTSHPlease just stress that a molecule in excess is traveling back to in activate a process the is in action currently.ThyroidT3T4
22 Positive Feedback Loop Please just focus on the fact that an end product is going back an amplifying a process that is currently in action.
23 Short Free Response 2 (3 points possible) Possible points awarded for:Discussion of reception being a ligand binding to a receptor protein. (1 pt.)Discussion of Transduction being a conformational shape change sets in motion of changing the signal into something a cell can “understand”. (1 pt.)Discussion of response being the cell “understanding” the signal and altering its behavior/function. (1 pt.)
24 Signal Transduction Response Make sure students understand it is either an enzyme being turned off/on or a process, such as transcription or replication, being turned on/off.