Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 5 Infrastructure Components PART I. 2 ESGD5125 SEM II 2009/2010 Dr. Samy Abu Naser 2 Learning Objectives: To discuss: The need for SQA procedures."— Presentation transcript:
2 ESGD5125 SEM II 2009/2010 Dr. Samy Abu Naser 2 Learning Objectives: To discuss: The need for SQA procedures Procedures and procedure manuals Work instructions and work instruction manuals The organizational framework for preparing, implementing and updating procedures and work instructions To be able to: Explain the contribution of procedures to SQA Explain the difference between procedures and work instructions List the activities involved in maintaining an organization’s procedures manual.
3 ESGD5125 SEM II 2009/2010 Dr. Samy Abu Naser Infrastructure components are tools employed to prevent software errors and promote the quality level of the entire organization.
4 ESGD5125 SEM II 2009/2010 Dr. Samy Abu Naser Procedures and work instruction. Quality support devices like templates and checklists. Staff SQA training and certification activities. Preventive and corrective actions. Software configuration management. Documentation and quality records control.
5 ESGD5125 SEM II 2009/2010 Dr. Samy Abu Naser Procedures and work instructions QA procedures: provide detailed definitions for the performance of specific types of development activities in a way that assures effective achievement of quality results. Procedures are planned to be generally applicable and to serve the entire organization.
6 ESGD5125 SEM II 2009/2010 Dr. Samy Abu Naser Procedures and work instructions Work instructions: provide detailed directions for the use of methods that are applied in unique instances and employed by specialized teams.
7 ESGD5125 SEM II 2009/2010 Dr. Samy Abu Naser The organization’s SQA procedures SQA work instructions The organization’s SQA policy International or national SQA standard
8 ESGD5125 SEM II 2009/2010 Dr. Samy Abu Naser The need for procedures and work instructions Performance of tasks, processes or activities in the most effective and efficient way. Effective and efficient communication between development and maintenance teams that reduces the misunderstandings which lead to software errors. Simplified coordination between tasks and activities performed by various teams that means fewer errors.
9 ESGD5125 SEM II 2009/2010 Dr. Samy Abu Naser Procedures The Five W’s: issues resolved by procedures: What activities have to be performed? How should each activity be performed? When should the activity be performed? Where should the activity be performed? Who should perform the activity?
10 ESGD5125 SEM II 2009/2010 Dr. Samy Abu Naser 1. Introduction * 2. Purpose 3. Terms and abbreviations * 4. Applicable documents 5. Method 6. Quality records and documentation 7. Reporting and follow-up * 8. Responsibility for implementation * 9. List of appendices * Appendices * Sections included if applicable Fixed table of contents for procedures
11 ESGD5125 SEM II 2009/2010 Dr. Samy Abu Naser The procedures manual Procedures manual: collection of all SQA procedures. Contents: The types of software development and maintenance activities carried out by the organization The range of activities belonging to each activity type The range of customers and suppliers The conceptions governing the choice of method applied by the organization to achieve desired SQA objectives.
12 ESGD5125 SEM II 2009/2010 Dr. Samy Abu Naser Works instructions and work instruction manual Work instructions deal with the application of procedures, adapted to the requirements of a specific project team, customer, or other relevant party. While general methodology is defined in a procedure, the precise details that allow its application to a specific project or unit are often laid out in a work procedure. In no case can work instructions contradict their parent procedure, although several instructions can be associated with any given procedure.
13 ESGD5125 SEM II 2009/2010 Dr. Samy Abu Naser Procedures and work instruction: preparation, implementation and updating An active SQA procedures manual conceals numerous, often ongoing activities that guarantee the procedures continued applicability Preparation of new procedures Implementation of new or revised procedures Updating procedures
14 ESGD5125 SEM II 2009/2010 Dr. Samy Abu Naser Technological changes in development tools, hardware, communication equipment, etc. Changes in the organization's areas of activity User proposals for improvement Analysis of failures as well as successes Proposals for improvements initiated by Internet audit reports Learning from the experience of other organizations Experiences of the SQA team
15 ESGD5125 SEM II 2009/2010 Dr. Samy Abu Naser Supporting Quality Devices Templates Checklists
16 ESGD5125 SEM II 2009/2010 Dr. Samy Abu Naser Templates Template: a format (especially table of contents) created by units or organizations, to be applied when compiling a report or some other type of document. Example: STP, STD, STR, SRS, etc.
17 ESGD5125 SEM II 2009/2010 Dr. Samy Abu Naser The contribution of templates to software quality For development team: Facilitates the process of preparing documents. Documents prepared by developer are more complete. Provides for easier integration of new team members. Facilitates review of documents. For software maintenance team: Enables easier location of the information.
18 ESGD5125 SEM II 2009/2010 Dr. Samy Abu Naser The organizational framework of templates Preparation of new templates Application of templates Updating templates
19 ESGD5125 SEM II 2009/2010 Dr. Samy Abu Naser Preparation of new templates The most common information sources used in preparing a template: Informal templates already used in the organization. Template example found in professional publications. Templates used by similar organizations.
20 ESGD5125 SEM II 2009/2010 Dr. Samy Abu Naser Application of templates Several fundamental decisions are involved in the implementation of new or updated templates: What channels should be used for advertising the templates? How should the templates be made available to the organization’s internal ‘customer’? Which templates will be compulsory and how can their application be enforced?
21 ESGD5125 SEM II 2009/2010 Dr. Samy Abu Naser Updating templates Sources for updating templates: User proposals and suggestions Changes in the organization’s area of activity Proposals initiated by design review and inspection teams based on their review of documents prepared according to the templates Analysis of failures as well as success Other organization’s experience SQA team initiatives.
22 ESGD5125 SEM II 2009/2010 Dr. Samy Abu Naser Checklists Checklist: list of items specially constructed for each type of document, or a menu of preparations to be completed prior to performing an activity. Some checklists have dual purpose: Provide a complete list of items to be verified, Provide space for documenting findings of the checks performed. Example: Proposal draft review checklist Contract draft review checklist
23 ESGD5125 SEM II 2009/2010 Dr. Samy Abu Naser The contribution of checklists to software quality For development team: Helps developers carrying out self-checks of documents or software code prior completion. Assists developers in their preparations for tasks. For review team: Assures completeness of document reviews by review team members. Facilitates & improves efficiency of review sessions.
24 ESGD5125 SEM II 2009/2010 Dr. Samy Abu Naser The organizational framework of checklists Preparation of new checklists Implementation of checklists Updating checklists
25 ESGD5125 SEM II 2009/2010 Dr. Samy Abu Naser Preparation of new checklists The most common information sources used in preparing a checklist: Informal checklists already in use in the organization. Checklist templates found in books and other professional publications. Checklists used by similar organizations.
26 ESGD5125 SEM II 2009/2010 Dr. Samy Abu Naser Updating checklist Sources for updating checklists: User proposals and suggestions Changes in technology, area of activity and clientele Proposals initiated by design review and inspection teams as a results from the document reviews Analysis of failures as well as successes Other organizations’ experience SQA team initiatives.
27 ESGD5125 SEM II 2009/2010 Dr. Samy Abu Naser Staff Training and Certification The objectives of training and certification The training and certification process Determine professional knowledge requirements Determine training and updating needs Planning training and updating programs Define positions requiring certification Planning the certification processes Delivery of training and certification programs Follow-up subsequent to training and certification
28 ESGD5125 SEM II 2009/2010 Dr. Samy Abu Naser The objectives of training and certification To develop the knowledge and skills new staff need. To assure conformity to the organization’s standards for software products (documents and code). To update the knowledge and skills of veteran staff. To transmit knowledge of SQA procedures To assure that candidates for key positions are adequately qualified.
29 ESGD5125 SEM II 2009/2010 Dr. Samy Abu Naser The training and certification process 1 2 3 4 6 7 5 8
30 ESGD5125 SEM II 2009/2010 Dr. Samy Abu Naser Determining training and updating needs The type of training is adapted to the needs of three distinct groups of staff: Training: for new employees, according to their designated assignment. Retraining: for employees assigned to new positions or receiving new assignments. Updating: for staff members as demanded by their position.
31 ESGD5125 SEM II 2009/2010 Dr. Samy Abu Naser Planning training and updating programs For software engineering topic For SQA
32 ESGD5125 SEM II 2009/2010 Dr. Samy Abu Naser Planning training and updating programs for SQA Include: Training for new employees, or updating the existing employees. To be organized periodically. Typical SQA updating program: once a year or once every six months.
33 ESGD5125 SEM II 2009/2010 Dr. Samy Abu Naser Planning the certification processes Typical certification requirements: Professional education: academic or technical degrees Internal training courses Professional experience in the organization (may be partially or completely in other organizations) Assessment of achievements and ability Evaluation by the candidate’s direct superior Demonstration of knowledge and skills by means of a test or a project Mentor’s supervision for a specified period of time.
34 ESGD5125 SEM II 2009/2010 Dr. Samy Abu Naser Planning the certification processes Functions of the certification committee: To perform the certification process on the basis of requests made individual applicants or units and grant certification to those who qualify. To follow up certification activities (such as monitoring) carried out by others. To update certification requirements in response to developments in the organization as well as the profession. To revise the list of positions requiring certification.
35 ESGD5125 SEM II 2009/2010 Dr. Samy Abu Naser Follow-up subsequent to training and certification The information provided by follow-up relates to: All training activities and certification procedures conducted – records of the performance of the participants in the program. Information about special cases of training activities that proved to be either highly successful or clearly unsuccessful in improving staff performance. Information about proven cases of failures of certified staff in the performance that point to clearly inadequate certification requirements.
36 ESGD5125 SEM II 2009/2010 Dr. Samy Abu Naser Follow-up activities Collection of regular performance metrics – such as errors and productivity statistics, corrective maintenance statistics and resources invested. Questionnaires completed by staff members who received training, their superiors, customers and others. Analysis of outstanding achievements as well as failures. Specialized review of software products (documents and code) prepared by certified and trained employees.