Presentation on theme: "ECTS definition : Student centred system, Student centred system, Based on student workload required to : Based on student workload required to : Achieve."— Presentation transcript:
ECTS definition : Student centred system, Student centred system, Based on student workload required to : Based on student workload required to : Achieve the objectives of a programme of study, specified in terms of learning outcomes Achieve the objectives of a programme of study, specified in terms of learning outcomes
ECTS : a double system A transfer system : credits are recognised and allow to change university ; studies taken at another institution replace part of the home curriculum. An accumulation system : one year of full time work by a student gives 60 credits. = the two sides of a same coin for the recognition of studies.
What is meant by credits ? Credits only describe student workload, not quality of performance, content or level. Credits can be allocated to all types of study programmes, and can be used as a yardstick for formal as well as informal and non formal learning (including placement and research) They can have a relative or absolute value :
Relative and absolute value Relative respect to a common basis for reciprocal recognition : a complete year’s work is equivalent to 60 credits. Each assessed activity gives credits calculated according to the proportion it represents in relation to the complete year’s workload (= transfer system) Absolute : credits are calculated on the basis of officially recognised criteria, that is the official length of a degree programme or unit (= accumulation system)
ECTS features 1 credit stands for 25-30 hours of work (on the base of 38-42 weeks) A normal course programme = 60 credits per academic year. Undergraduate studies = 180/240 credits. Graduate (Master) studies = 90/120 credits. A full academic year (12 month programme) can have a maximum of 75 credits. A cycle (Master) programme of 90 credits is normally based on a length of 14-15 study months (=57-60 weeks)
Learning outcomes and competences Why focus on competences ? To increase transparency of professional profiles in study programmes To shift to a more learner oriented approach to education To fit with LLL which requires more flexibility To develop higher levels of employability and citizenship To develop a shared language for consultation with all stakeholder
Difference between learning outcomes and competences Learning outcomes are formulated by the academic staff on the basis of input from internal and external stakeholders. Competences are obtained or developed by the learners during the process of learning. They are implemented in a professionnal context.
Definitions Learning outcomes are statements of what a learner is expected to know, understand, and/or able to demonstrate after completions of learning. The can refer to a single course unit or else to a period of studies. Learning outcomes specify the requirements for award of credit. Learning outcomes may be expressed in terms of comptences
Definition Competences represent a dynamic combination of knowledge, understanding, skills and abilities. Competences are formed in various course units and assessed at different stages. Competences may be developed to a greater degree than the level required by the learning outcomes. Competences are divided into subject specific and generic categories.
How to formulate « learning outcomes » ? Example 1 : « If he has successfully completed the course, the student is able to : -understand -the basic concepts of chemistry -both theoretically et pratically»
How to formulate « learning outcomes » ? (follow) Example 2 : « If he has successfully completed the course, the student is able to : - Resolve -Complex problems of chemistry -Demonstrating both generic and subject specific competences»
How to formulate « learning outcomes » ? (end) The formulation must show : -What the student has to do (verb) -What is the of matter of the work (substantive) -How this work proves that the attended objectives has been achieved (adverb)
How to allocate credits ? Credits should be allocated to all learning activities including work placement. The number of credits only depends on the workload. The workload of a course unit is based on the total amount of tasks a student is expected to do as part of the overall programme of study. Complexity of material or importance of the topic should never play a role when credits are allocated.
Modular and non-modular system In a non modular system, each course unit can have a different number of credits. In a modular system, all the course units have a fixed number of credits, or a multiple of this number. It makes the transfer of credits easier, but it is difficult to change the structure of the programme.
Bottom-up/top-down approach Bottom-up approach : the course unit or building brick is the central point of departure. The risk is that the teacher overestimates or underestimates the role ot the course unit and the connected workload Top-down approach : describe the learning outcomes at the relevant levels, and then organize the course units necessary to meet the objectives of the programme.
Notional learning time Time employed and the individual background of the students are the two elements that can be identified as variables in learning achievements. In this context, pre-requisite knowledge when entering a given qualification, is a basic element. The notional learning time is the number of hours which is expected a “normal” student will need on average (at a particular level) to achieve the specified learning outcomes. There is a relationship between the effort and the result of a student.
Four steps 1.Introducing modules/course units 2.Estimating student workload 3.Checking the estimated workload through student evaluations 4.Adjustment of workload and/or learning activities.
The Tuning dynamic quality development circle Definition of degree profile programme design : definition of learning outcomes/ competences Identification of resources Construction of curricula: content and structure Selection of teaching and learning approaches Selection of types of assessment Assessment and improvement “feed back and backforward” ECTS Credits distribution
Accumulation and recognition Credits are always awarded in the context of a coherent programme of study. Credits are not interchangeable automatically from one context to another. In the case of LLL, the institution must always evaluate the work done or competences obtained before this/these can be included in the institution’s own degree programme. Final examinations at the end of a programme of study, are intended to prove that the overall learning outcomes have been achieved.
CREDITS AND LEVELS The use of the three Bologna cycles automatically includes the introduction of the concept of levels. Dublin descriptors : sets of general descriptors for each cycle.
The ECTS tools The course catalogue (indicating the level, number of credits, learning outcomes and assessment), which can be consulted on the internet. The learning agreement (signed by the appropriate home and host authorities and the student), for automatic recognition. The transcript of records The application form The ECTS grading scale or rating scheme : A= the top 10 % ; B = the next 25 % ; C = the following 30 % ; D = the following 25 % ; E = the final 10 %. (the minimum number of the cohort must be around 100).