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Health, Wellness, Fitness & Healthy Lifestyles: An Introduction

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Presentation on theme: "Health, Wellness, Fitness & Healthy Lifestyles: An Introduction"— Presentation transcript:

1 Health, Wellness, Fitness & Healthy Lifestyles: An Introduction
The purpose of this presentation is to introduce the national health goals, and then define, compare, and contrast the terms health, wellness, fitness, and healthy lifestyles. The multiple dimensions of health, wellness, and fitness, and the factors influencing each of these are also presented. Finally, the presentation concludes with an explanation of the HELP philosophy, which provides an important foundation for making healthy lifestyle changes. Good health, wellness, fitness, and healthy lifestyles are important for all people. 1

2 Healthy People 2010 National Health Goals
Increase the span of "healthy" life Eliminate health disparities Increase access to information and services for all people The Healthy People 2010 document published by the U.S. Public Health Service outlines the major health goal for the nation. Implicit in this document is a strong emphasis on health promotion and quality of life. It is not important to increase the length of our lives (modern technology does that for us) but to increase the span of healthy life. Another goal is to achieve access to preventive services for all Americans. This is important in reducing the health disparities among individual people. These same concepts are the cornerstone of the wellness philosophy. It can promote quality of life and it is available to everyone. 4

3 Years of Healthy Life Total Lifespan (~ 77.6 Years) 8.1 yrs 69.3 yrs.
This diagram shows the breakdown of our lifespan. The average life expectancy is currently about 77 years. (For comparison life expectancy was 45 years in 1900). Most people, however, are only healthy for 64 years. Another 12 years are spent with compromised health or a reduced quality of life. 69.3 yrs. 3

4 Health Life Expectancy for North America
As illustrated in Figure 1, life expectancy in North America is related to the country in which you live, with Canadians living the longest and Mexicans having the lowest life expectancy. In the U.S., as well as in Canada and Mexico, women have a greater life expectancy than men, though men typically have fewer unhealthy years. Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

5 Health - state of being associated with freedom from disease and illness.
The model of wellness is important for students to understand, as it sets the stage for the entire course (similar to Figure 2, pg. 4 in text). It illustrates the modern concept of health, and how wellness is the positive component as evidenced by a sense of well-being reflected in optimal functioning, health-related quality of life, meaningful work, and a contribution to society. It is multi-dimensional, which includes those listed on the next slide. They are all closely related to each other. Some examples are provided below: 1. Exercising with a friend: (physical and social) 2. Getting together with friends (social and emotional) 3. Going to church: (spiritual, intellectual, and emotional) Refer to Figure 2, pg. 4 in book. Physical Health/Wellness is the emphasis of this course (definitions below), although all dimensions will be discussed. In fact, you have a Wellness Activity project which requires performing an activity in each dimension and reflecting on each experience. Physical Health: Free from illnesses that affect the physiological systems of the body such as the heart and nervous system. A person with physical health possesses an adequate level of physical fitness and wellness. Physical Wellness: A person’s ability to function effectively in meeting the demands of the day’s work and to use free time effectively. It includes good physical fitness and the possession of useful motor skills. Wellness - the positive component of health; sense of well-being; a product; multidimensional

6 Treatment vs. Promotion
Disease/Illness Wellness Disease Treatment Prevention Health Promotion This figure contrasts disease treatment w/ health promotion. The typical medical model is oriented towards disease treatment. People get sick and then go to the doctor. A step better than this is to prevent disease before it occurs. Better still is the Wellness philosophy which is based on health promotion. By adopting positive health behaviors there is a reduced chance of becoming ill and requiring treatment. A shocking statistic is that our government currently spends 97% of our health care expenses are spent on treatment and prevention. Only 3% for health promotion. (an analogy is not getting the oil changed in your car and then spending money on a new engine). 6

7 The Wellness Continuum
ILLNESS WELLNESS neutral point Wellness is most often viewed on a continuum. On one end is illness and the other end is wellness. The medical model typically views health as the absence of disease. From a wellness perspective, this is just the zero point (no illness or wellness). Just like there are many levels of illness there are many levels of wellness. The goal is to keep striving to be better. (no illness or wellness) 5

8 Health and Wellness are Multi-Dimensional
Wellness is multidimensional. Being fit is not enough to be well. The dimensions of health and wellness include the emotional– mental, intellectual, social, spiritual, and physical. Figure 3 illustrates the importance of each one for optimal health and wellness. Some people include environmental and vocational (occupational) dimensions in addition to the five described in Figure 3. In this book, health and wellness are considered to be personal factors. While the environment and one’s vocation can certainly influence the adoption and maintenance of healthy lifestyles, they are not viewed as independent (or personal) dimensions of wellness. 5

9 The Dimensions of Health and Wellness
- + Happy Depressed Emotional-Mental Intellectual Informed Ignorant Fit Unfit Physical This chart examines each of the dimensions in greater detail. On the emotional scale a person can be either happy or depressed. On the intellectual scale a person can be informed or ignorant. On the physical scale a person could be fit or unfit, on the social scale a person could be involved or lonely and on the spiritual scale a person could be fulfilled or unfulfilled. Outlook in life can have a major influence on quality of life. People who are “well” typically have a positive outlook on life. The way one perceives each of the dimensions of wellness affects one’s total outlook. Researchers use the term self–perceptions to describe these feelings. Many researchers believe that self-perceptions about wellness are more important than actual circumstances or a person’s actual state of being. For example, a person who has an important job may find less meaning and job satisfaction than another person with a much less important job. Apparently, one of the important factors for a person who has achieved high level wellness and a positive outlook on life is the ability to reward himself or herself. Some people, however, seem unable to give themselves credit for their successes. The development of a system that allows a person to perceive the self positively is important. Involved Lonely Social Spiritual Fulfilled Unfulfilled Negative Total Outlook Positive 8

10 Achieving Wellness Wellness is the product of healthy lifestyles just like fitness is the product of regular exercise Wellness reflects how one feels about life as well as one’s ability to function effectively Wellness is the product of a healthy lifestyle. If you do the process, the product follows. The next slide shows some of the important lifestyles for optimal wellness. The development of a system that allows a person to perceive the self positively is important. Of course, the adoption of positive lifestyles that encourage improved self-perceptions is also important. The questionnaire in Lab 1 will help you assess your self-perceptions of the various wellness dimensions. For optimal wellness, it is important to find positive feelings about each dimension. 10

11 The Integration of Wellness Dimensions
The segmented pictures of health and wellness shown in Figure 3 is used only to illustrate the multidimensional nature of health and wellness. In reality, health and wellness are integrated states of being that can best be depicted as threads that are woven together to produce a larger, integrated fabric. Each dimension relates to each of the others and overlaps all the others. The overlap is so frequent and so great that the specific contribution of each thread is almost indistinguishable when looking at the total (Figure 4).

12 Physical Fitness Multi-dimensional state of being
Body’s ability to function efficiently and effectively Not the same as physical health and wellness Physical fitness is a multidimensional state of being. Physical fitness is the body’s ability to function efficiently and effectively. It is a state of being that consists of at least five health-related and six skill-related physical fitness components, each of which contributes to total quality of life. Physical fitness is associated with a person’s ability to work effectively, enjoy leisure time, be healthy, resist hypokinetic diseases or conditions, and meet emergency situations. It is related to, but different from, health and wellness. Although the development of physical fitness is the result of many things, optimal physical fitness is not possible without regular physical activity. Different physical activities require different skills and abilities. It is unrealistic to expect to be good at all activities. The good news is that nearly everyone can find some activity that fits their combination of attributes. Good physical fitness contributes directly to the physical component of good health and wellness and indirectly to the other four components. Good fitness has been shown to be associated with reduced risk for chronic diseases, such as heart disease, and has been shown to reduce the consequences of many debilitating conditions. In addition, good fitness contributes to wellness by helping us look our best, feel good, and enjoy life. Other physical factors can also influence health and wellness. For example, having good physical skills enhances quality of life by allowing us to participate in enjoyable activities, such as tennis, golf, and bowling. Although fitness can assist us in performing these activities, regular practice is also necessary. Another example is the ability to fight off viral and bacterial infections. Although fitness can promote a strong immune system, other physical factors can influence our susceptibility to these and other conditions.

13 Physical Fitness cont’d
Consists of: 5 health-related fitness components 6 skill-related components (aka sports fitness or motor fitness) 2 non-performance components Specific, but interrelated components Health-Related Fitness Components (on Next Slide): Cardiovascular Fitness, Muscular Strength & Endurance, Body Composition, & Flexibility Skill-Related Fitness Components (also referred to as sports fitness or motor fitness) (on Future Slide): Power, Speed, Reaction Time, Coordination, Balance, Agility Non-Performance Components: Metabolic Fitness & Bone Integrity Physical fitness is a combination of several aspects, rather than a single characteristic. A fit person possesses at least adequate levels of each of the health-related, skill-related, and metabolic fitness components. Some relationships exist among various fitness characteristics, but each of the components of physical fitness is separate and different from the others. For example, people who possess exceptional strength may not have good cardiovascular fitness, and those who have good coordination do not necessarily possess good flexibility.

14 Health Related Fitness
Cardiovascular endurance Muscular endurance Muscular strength Flexibility Body composition There are 5 dimensions of health related fitness Go over each of the dimensions. Relate briefly how each of the dimensions may relate to health: Cardiovascular: decrease CHD risk MS and ME: decrease risk of osteoporosis, back pain Flex: reduced risk of musculoskeletal injuries, back pain Body Comp: reduced risk of diabetes, hypertension, CHD 7

15 Skill Related Fitness Agility Balance Coordination Speed Power
Reaction time There are 6 dimensions of Skill Related Fitness Ask the students what types of fitness testing they remember doing in grade school. Most likely it included primarily SRF tests (shuttle run, softball throw, 50 yard dash etc....) Discuss why we have shifted to a focus on health related fitness. 1. less genetically determined (all people can improve)) 2. more related to health and wellness rather than performance 8

16 Need for Fitness Positive Habits Good Health Mental Stability
Enjoyable Leisure Value of fitness Look good Feel good Enjoy life Be healthy This slide summarize why fitness is needed. It improves our work ability, improves our health, helps us to meet emergencies and increases our potential for rewarding leisure activities. All of these contribute to improving our quality of life. The value of fitness is also described. 3

17 Who’s the Fittest? Athletes excel in a variety of ways but no athlete can excel at all sports. The reason for this is the multi-dimensional nature of fitness. It would be impossible to say which of these athletes (or any athlete) is the most fittest because they all excel at different things. A B C D

18 Value of Fitness Assessments
Indicate areas needed for improvement in health, fitness, or performance Provide baseline marker to track progress in exercise programs Promote personal knowledge about skills and abilities Discuss the value of fitness assessments. A major component of the Concepts approach to fitness/wellness education is self-assessment. To help students take responsibility for their own health it is important to learn how to evaluate current status and plan on how to improve.

19 Healthy Lifestyles Regular physical activity Eating well
Managing stress Avoiding destructive habits Adopting good safety habits Learning first aid Adopting good personal health habits Seeking and complying with medical advice Being an informed consumer Protecting the environment These are some healthy lifestyles that will be discussed in the remaining lectures. Demonstrate the healthfinder web page to show them one place to go for additional information on a variety of health topics. 11

20 Physical Activity Physical activity is a priority lifestyle that impacts health, wellness, and fitness Physical Activity impacts health, wellness and fitness. The rest of the presentation will cover specific information about fitness. 2

21 Priority Lifestyles for Good Health
Three priority areas: Physical activity, nutrition, stress management Reasons why these lifestyles are especially critical: They affect the lives of all people Many people can make improvements Small changes can have a major impact on individual and public health Exercising regularly Eating properly Managing stress Several lifestyle behaviors are considered as priority lifestyles because they effect the health and lives of all people. Exercise, nutrition and stress management are considered as priority lifestyles.

22 The HELP Philosophy: The basis for a healthy lifestyle
A personal philosophy that emphasizes HEALTH can lead to behaviors that promote it. EVERYONE can benefit from healthy lifestyles regardless of age or current health status. Healthy behaviors are most effective when practiced for a LIFETIME. The philosophy for the course is that Health is available for Everyone for a Lifetime and it is Personal. The acronym spells HELP. Healthy lifestyles should be based on PERSONAL needs and interests.

23 The Stairway to Lifetime Fitness: A Path to Independence
Regular Exercise Achieving Fitness Personal Exercise Pattern Fitness Evaluation Problem Solver INDEPENDENCE This figure shows the 5 steps of the stairway one at a time. First step is to do regular physical activity and to achieve a base level of fitness. This is where most fitness programs stop. The goal in this class is to help you develop a personal exercise pattern so that you can identify the exercises you enjoy and fit them into your schedule. We also hope to teach you how to assess your level of fitness so that you can retest yourself. Lastly, we want to make you an independent problem solver so that you can plan your exercises to meet your individual needs. As you ascend the stairway, you become more independent and are more likely to continue on your own! 17

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