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The Road to the Treaty of Versailles

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Presentation on theme: "The Road to the Treaty of Versailles"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Road to the Treaty of Versailles
The End of WWI The Road to the Treaty of Versailles By Spring of 1917, WWI had wrecked Europe. Many believed Americans would bring a quick end to war.

2 New Technology Needed solution to classic trench warfare Solutions:
Poisonous gas causing vomiting, blindness, suffocation Tanks Airplanes for observation, then small bombs, then machine guns Trench warfare—diagram

3 The Americans and Victory
Winning the war at sea: convoys Convoy: merchant & troop transports gathered intro groups protected by warships Russia leaves the war in March 1917 Treaty of Brest-Litovsk: Germany gains territory but leaves remaining Russian lands German offensive falters: March 1917 near Paris Battle of Argonne Forest: Largest attack in American history 600,000 American troops; 40,000 tons of supplies; 4,000 artillery pieces Massive casualties on both sides but open hole in German lines Revolution in Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Turks surrender, naval mutiny in Kiel = people in Berlin rise in rebellion and force German emperor to step down 11th hour on the the 11th day of the 11th Month, 1918 Germany signs armistice to end war German attack on Western front--

4 WWI Ends! Now What? January 1919: peace conference began in near Paris to resolve issues arising from WWI Principle figures in the negotiation: The “Big Four” United States President Woodrow Wilson  Italian Prime Minister Vittorio Orlando  French Premier Georges Clemenceau British Prime Minister David Lloyd George 

5 Hall of Mirrors in the Palace of Versailles

6 Woodrow Wilson’s 14 Points
Wilson believed that WWI would be the last great international conflict Proposed 14 Points to Congress in January 1918 First 5 points proposed to eliminate the general causes of war through: Free trade Disarmament Freedom of the seas Impartial adjustment of colonial claims Open diplomacy instead of secret treaties Next 8 Points addressed the right to self-determination and required Central Powers to evacuate all of the countries invaded during the war 14th Point: League of Nations Member nations would preserve peace and prevent future wars

7 Negotiations All involved countries wanted different things: France
Germany must PAY!!! Britain Germany must pay BUT not so much that they turn to Communism (Rise of Communism in Russia had the rest of Europe nervous!) United States 14 Points Italy Mostly left out of negotiations. Wanted territorial gains in Adriatic coast promised to Italy from the Secret Treaty of London. Germany Not allowed to participate. Only invited to sign the Treaty (or else!)

8 The Treaty of Versailles
Germany forced to: Reduce Army and Navy (+ no submarines) Destroy air force Give land to Belgium, Poland, France, and Denmark Give up all colonies Pay Reparations Accept all blame for the war League of Nations formed New Countries Created: Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, and Finland (land lost from Russia) AND Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia and Hungary (land lost from Austro- Hungarian Empire)

9 Europe Before and After the Treaty of Versailles

10 Wilson goes back to the United States…
Disappointed about 14 Points BUT happy because League of Nations adopted US Congress rejects the adoption of the League of Nations Wilson travels the country trying to gain support for the League

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