The Germans were humiliated that it was signed in the Hall of Mirrors, in the Palace of Versailles. This was because in 1871, after defeating France in a war, the Germans held a ceremony to celebrate the creation of the German Empire in the Hall of Mirrors. The French were getting their own back for this previous humiliation.
Military The German army was limited to 100,000 men. Tanks, gas, heavy artillery were forbidden in the German forces. Germany was forbidden to have an air force.
The Germans felt defenceless. This was because their army was now tiny. It had been the biggest in Europe before the First World War. Germany was also not allowed to protect herself with modern weapons and an air-force, like the rest of Europe was.
Military The Rhineland (which was part of Germany) was demilitarised. This means that there were no troops, weapons or fortifications allowed in this area. This was to create a ‘buffer zone’ between France and Germany.
The Germans felt vulnerable. This was because the Rhineland was part of Germany. Germany was not even allowed to defend her own border with France.
Naval The German High Seas Fleet (navy) was to be handed over to the Allies (Britain). The German navy was limited to six small battleships and no submarines. (The Germans then deliberately SCUTTLED (sank) the whole fleet at Scapa Flow in Orkney after it had been handed over.)
The Germans felt bitter. This was because the High Seas fleet had been the pride of Germany before the First World War and the second biggest navy in the world. It was an extra insult that the navy had to be handed over to Britain – Germany’s biggest naval rival.
Territorial Poland was recreated and was given land from Germany - West Prussia, Silesia and Posen to give her access to the sea. This land became known as the Polish corridor.
The Germans felt torn-apart. This was because East Prussia was still part of Germany, but was completely separated from the rest of Germany by the Polish Corridor.
Territorial Anschluss (An-sh-loose) - joining together Germany and Austria to make one country, was forbidden.
The Germans felt bullied. This was because Austrians spoke German too. Many Germans wanted Austria and Germany to join together to make one super-German power.
Territorial Alsace and Lorraine were returned to France. The Saar Coalfield was given to France for 15 years. North Schleswig was given to Denmark. Germany’s colonies were confiscated.
The Germans felt impoverished. This was because losing so much land would make Germany poor. The Saar coalfield created a lot of wealth for Germany, as did her colonies.
War Guilt Article 231 – the WAR GUILT CLAUSE. Germany had to accept that she was responsible for starting the war.
The Germans felt unfairly blamed. This was because Germany was not the first country to declare war in 1914. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia first.
Reparations Article 232 – Germany had to pay REPARATIONS ( damages, compensation) of £6.6billion (about £284 billion today) for all the damage done during the war. (The final amount was not decided on until 1921.) 6.6 Billion
The Germans felt overwhelmed. This was because this was a huge amount of money. The terms of the treaty made Germany even poorer at a time when she already had huge war debts. There was no way that she would be able to pay this off, even in instalments.
Collective Security The League of Nations (the first version of the United Nations) was set up in order to prevent future wars. Germany was not allowed to join the League. (Neither were the other defeated nations Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria and Turkey. Russia was also not allowed to join.) =
The Germans felt excluded. This was because Woodrow Wilson had wanted a ‘peace without victory’, but the League of Nations became a ‘winners’ club’. Germany was not allowed to join and had no collective security ie had no other countries to stand up for her or protect her against aggressors.