3 "Improved transportation technologies and commercial practices led to an increased volume of trade, and expanded the geographical range of existing and newly active trade networks."New trade routes centering on Mesoamerica and the Andes developed.
4 New Trading Cities Novgorod (Russia) Timbuktu The Swahili city-states HangzhouCalicut (a.k.a. Kozhikode)BaghdadMelakaVeniceTenochtitlanCahokiaRiver port of Hangzhou
5 Growth of Trade in Luxury Goods Silk and cotton textilesPorcelainSpicesPrecious metals and gemsSlavesExotic animals
10 Expansion of EmpiresHow does the expansion of an empire influence trade and communications?ChinaThe Byzantine EmpireThe CaliphatesThe Mongols
11 Environmental Knowledge and Technological Adaptations The way Scandinavian Vikings used their longships to travel in coastal and open waters as well as in rivers and estuariesThe way the Arabs and Berbers adapted camels to travel across and around the SaharaThe way Central Asian pastoral groups used horses to travel in the steppes
12 Migrations and Their Environmental Impacts • The migration of Bantu-speaking peoples who facilitatedtransmission of iron technologies and agricultural techniques inSub-Saharan Africa• The maritime migrations of the Polynesian peoples who cultivated transplanted foods and domesticated animals as they moved to new islands
13 Diffusion of Languages The spread of Bantu languages including SwahiliThe spread of Turkic and Arabic languages
14 Cross-Cultural Exchanges- Islam Based on revelations of the 'prophet' MuhammadArabian peninsulaReflected interactions among Jews, Christians, and ZoroastriansMilitary ExpansionAlso spread through trade activity and missionaries
15 Diasporic Communities Cultural traditions were introduced into indigenous culturesMuslim merchant communities in the Indian Ocean regionChinese merchant communities in Southeast AsiaSogdian merchant communities throughout Central AsiaJewish communities in the Mediterranean, Indian Ocean basin, or along the Silk Road
16 Interregional Travelers Ibn BattutaMarco PoloXuanzang
17 Diffusion of Literary, Artistic, and Cultural Traditions The influence of Neoconfucianism and Buddhism in East AsiaHinduism and Buddhism in Southeast AsiaIslam in Sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast AsiaToltec/Mexica and Inca traditions in Mesoamerica and Andean America
18 Diffusion of Scientific and Technological Traditions The influence of Greek and Indian mathematics on Muslim scholarsThe return of Greek science and philosophy to Western Europe via Muslim al-Andalus in IberiaThe spread of printing and gunpowder technologies from East Asia into the Islamic empires and Western Europe
19 New Foods and New Diseases Bananas in AfricaNew rice varieties in East AsiaThe spread of cotton, sugar, and citrus throughout Dar al-Islam and the Mediterranean basinThe spread of epidemic diseases, including the Black Death, followed the well established paths of trade and military conquest.
20 Continuity and Innovation of State Forms and Their Interactions Key Concept 3.2Continuity and Innovation of State Forms and Their Interactions
27 Technological and Cultural Transfers Between Tang China and the AbbasidsAcross the Mongol empiresDuring the Crusades
28 Increased Economic Productive Capacity and Its Consequences Key Concept 3.3Increased Economic Productive Capacity and Its Consequences
29 Increased Agricultural Production -> Technological Innovations Champa rice varietiesThe chinampa field systemsWaru waru agricultural techniques in the Andean areasImproved terracing techniquesThe horse collarHorse collar (early form of harness)Terracing in China
30 Crops were transported from their indigenous homelands to equivalent climates in other regions. Chinese, Persian, and Indian artisans and merchants expanded their production of textiles and porcelains for exportIndustrial production of iron and steel expanded in China.
31 Factors of Decline • Invasions • Disease • The decline of agricultural productivity• The Little Ice Age As older cities declined, numerous new cities emerged to take on established roles
32 Factors of Revival The end of invasions The availability of safe and reliable transportThe rise of commerce and the warmer temperatures between 800 and 1300Increased agricultural productivity and subsequent rising populationGreater availability of labor also contributed to urban growth
34 Labor Organization • Free peasant agriculture • Nomadic pastoralism • Craft production and guild organization• Various forms of coerced and unfree labor• Government-imposed labor taxes• Military obligations
35 Social Structures Still shaped by class, caste, and/or hierarchy Patriarchy, BUTIn some areas women gained power and influence, such as:The MongolsWest AfricaJapanSoutheast Asia
36 Slaves and Peasants New forms of coerced labor Serfdom Mit'a Demand for slaves for military and domestic purposes increasedFree peasants resisted attempts to raise dues and taxes by staging revolts. Areas:ChinaThe Byzantine EmpireDiffusion of Buddhism, Christianity, Islam, and Neoconfucianism often led to significant changes in gender relations and family structure.
37 CCOTIdentify important changes/continuities for each of the following regions:Europe, Middle East, South Asia, East Asia, Sub-Saharan AfricaIdentify CCOT in terms of SPICE
38 Review Questions:Compare the impact of the Mongol Empire on cultures and institutions in Eastern Europe, Middle East, and East AsiaContrast the economic, social, cultural, and political role of cities such as Guangzhou (Canton), Samarkand, Timbuktu, Cairo, and Venice played vital roles in the development of in the period Choose two the urban centers and analyze how their location, and other factors, contributed to their role as a member of the interregional networks of this era.Compare schisms in Christianity (Roman Catholic-Orthodox) and Islam (Sunni-Shia).Compare and contrast the developments in political and social institutions in two of the following regions from 600 to 1450: Pre-Columbian Americas, Eastern Europe, Western Europe, Islamic World, East Asia, South Asia.Compare the significance of Indian Ocean trade patterns to those of the so-called “Silk Road” and the trans-Saharan caravan routes. Do land-based transportation networks impact adjacent peoples differently from maritime networks? The era of was marked by different forms of treatment of women and the different roles they played in society. Choose two different cultures below and compare and contrast the role and treatment of women in them. East Asia Americas Western Europe Sub-Saharan Africa Middle EastCompare and contrast the impact of Islam on two gender systems in sub-Saharan Africa, Southeast Asia or South Asia.Compare and contrast the social, cultural, political and economic structures of the Aztec Empire and Inca Empire.Compare and contrast European and sub-Saharan African contacts with the Islamic worldDescribe and analyze the cultural, economic, and political impact of Islam on ONE of the following regions between 1000 CE and 1750 CE. Be sure to discuss continuities as well as changes: West Africa, South Asia, Europe