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Communication and Exchange Networks

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Presentation on theme: "Communication and Exchange Networks"— Presentation transcript:

1 Communication and Exchange Networks
Key Concept 3.1 Communication and Exchange Networks Expansion, Intensification, and Innovations


3 "Improved transportation technologies and commercial practices led to an increased volume of trade, and expanded the geographical range of existing and newly active trade networks." New trade routes centering on Mesoamerica and the Andes developed.

4 New Trading Cities Novgorod (Russia) Timbuktu The Swahili city-states
Hangzhou Calicut (a.k.a. Kozhikode) Baghdad Melaka Venice Tenochtitlan Cahokia River port of Hangzhou

5 Growth of Trade in Luxury Goods
Silk and cotton textiles Porcelain Spices Precious metals and gems Slaves Exotic animals

6 Transportation/Commercial Technologies: Caravan Organization
Caravanserai Camel Saddles

7 New Forms of Credit and Monetization
Bills of exchange Credit Checks Banking houses

8 State Practices Minting of coins Use of paper money
Grand Canal in China

9 Trading Organizations
Hanseatic League

10 Expansion of Empires How does the expansion of an empire influence trade and communications? China The Byzantine Empire The Caliphates The Mongols

11 Environmental Knowledge and Technological Adaptations
The way Scandinavian Vikings used their longships to travel in coastal and open waters as well as in rivers and estuaries The way the Arabs and Berbers adapted camels to travel across and around the Sahara The way Central Asian pastoral groups used horses to travel in the steppes

12 Migrations and Their Environmental Impacts
• The migration of Bantu-speaking peoples who facilitated transmission of iron technologies and agricultural techniques in Sub-Saharan Africa • The maritime migrations of the Polynesian peoples who cultivated transplanted foods and domesticated animals as they moved to new islands

13 Diffusion of Languages
The spread of Bantu languages including Swahili The spread of Turkic and Arabic languages

14 Cross-Cultural Exchanges- Islam
Based on revelations of the 'prophet' Muhammad Arabian peninsula Reflected interactions among Jews, Christians, and Zoroastrians Military Expansion Also spread through trade activity and missionaries

15 Diasporic Communities
Cultural traditions were introduced into indigenous cultures Muslim merchant communities in the Indian Ocean region Chinese merchant communities in Southeast Asia Sogdian merchant communities throughout Central Asia Jewish communities in the Mediterranean, Indian Ocean basin, or along the Silk Road

16 Interregional Travelers
Ibn Battuta Marco Polo Xuanzang

17 Diffusion of Literary, Artistic, and Cultural Traditions
The influence of Neoconfucianism and Buddhism in East Asia Hinduism and Buddhism in Southeast Asia Islam in Sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia Toltec/Mexica and Inca traditions in Mesoamerica and Andean America

18 Diffusion of Scientific and Technological Traditions
The influence of Greek and Indian mathematics on Muslim scholars The return of Greek science and philosophy to Western Europe via Muslim al-Andalus in Iberia The spread of printing and gunpowder technologies from East Asia into the Islamic empires and Western Europe

19 New Foods and New Diseases
Bananas in Africa New rice varieties in East Asia The spread of cotton, sugar, and citrus throughout Dar al-Islam and the Mediterranean basin The spread of epidemic diseases, including the Black Death, followed the well established paths of trade and military conquest.

20 Continuity and Innovation of State Forms and Their Interactions
Key Concept 3.2 Continuity and Innovation of State Forms and Their Interactions


22 Empires Collapse and Reconstitute
Combined traditional sources of power and legitimacy with innovations Patriarchy Religion Land-owning elites

23 Islamic States Abbasids Muslim Iberia Delhi Sultanates

24 City-States In the Italian peninsula In East Africa In Southeast Asia
In the Americas What are city-states?

25 Synthesis by States Persian traditions that influenced Islamic states
Chinese traditions that influenced states in Japan


27 Technological and Cultural Transfers
Between Tang China and the Abbasids Across the Mongol empires During the Crusades

28 Increased Economic Productive Capacity and Its Consequences
Key Concept 3.3 Increased Economic Productive Capacity and Its Consequences

29 Increased Agricultural Production -> Technological Innovations
Champa rice varieties The chinampa field systems Waru waru agricultural techniques in the Andean areas Improved terracing techniques The horse collar Horse collar (early form of harness) Terracing in China

30 Crops were transported from their indigenous homelands to equivalent climates in other regions.
Chinese, Persian, and Indian artisans and merchants expanded their production of textiles and porcelains for export Industrial production of iron and steel expanded in China.

31 Factors of Decline • Invasions • Disease
• The decline of agricultural productivity • The Little Ice Age  As older cities declined, numerous new cities emerged to take on established roles

32 Factors of Revival The end of invasions
The availability of safe and reliable transport The rise of commerce and the warmer temperatures between  800 and 1300 Increased agricultural productivity and subsequent rising population Greater availability of labor also contributed to urban growth


34 Labor Organization • Free peasant agriculture • Nomadic pastoralism
• Craft production and guild organization • Various forms of coerced and unfree labor • Government-imposed labor taxes • Military obligations

35 Social Structures Still shaped by class, caste, and/or hierarchy
Patriarchy, BUT In some areas women gained power and influence, such as: The Mongols West Africa Japan Southeast Asia 

36 Slaves and Peasants New forms of coerced labor Serfdom Mit'a
Demand for slaves for military and domestic purposes increased Free peasants resisted attempts to raise dues and taxes by staging revolts. Areas: China The Byzantine Empire Diffusion of  Buddhism, Christianity, Islam, and Neoconfucianism often led to significant changes in gender relations and family structure.

37 CCOT Identify important changes/continuities for each of the following regions: Europe, Middle East, South Asia, East Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa Identify CCOT in terms of SPICE

38 Review Questions: Compare the impact of the Mongol Empire on cultures and institutions in Eastern Europe, Middle East, and East Asia Contrast the economic, social, cultural, and political role of cities such as Guangzhou (Canton), Samarkand, Timbuktu, Cairo, and Venice played vital roles in the development of in the period Choose two the urban centers and analyze how their location, and other factors, contributed to their role as a member of the interregional networks of this era. Compare schisms in Christianity (Roman Catholic-Orthodox) and Islam (Sunni-Shia). Compare and contrast the developments in political and social institutions in two of the following regions from 600 to 1450: Pre-Columbian Americas, Eastern Europe, Western Europe, Islamic World, East Asia, South Asia. Compare the significance of Indian Ocean trade patterns to those of the so-called “Silk Road” and the trans-Saharan caravan routes.  Do land-based transportation networks impact adjacent peoples differently from maritime networks?  The era of was marked by different forms of treatment of women and the different roles they played in society. Choose two different cultures below and compare and contrast the role and treatment of women in them. East Asia        Americas        Western Europe        Sub-Saharan Africa Middle East Compare and contrast the impact of Islam on two gender systems in sub-Saharan Africa, Southeast Asia or South Asia. Compare and contrast the social, cultural, political and economic structures of the Aztec Empire and Inca Empire. Compare and contrast European and sub-Saharan African contacts with the Islamic world Describe and analyze the cultural, economic, and political impact of Islam on ONE of the following regions between 1000 CE and 1750 CE. Be sure to discuss continuities as well as changes: West Africa, South Asia, Europe

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