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PCD Objective 6.01 Understand the physical, emotional, and social development and care of children ages 3-6.

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Presentation on theme: "PCD Objective 6.01 Understand the physical, emotional, and social development and care of children ages 3-6."— Presentation transcript:

1 PCD Objective 6.01 Understand the physical, emotional, and social development and care of children ages 3-6.

2 Physical characteristics of children ages 3-6
Growth in height 2 ½-3 in. per yr Boys slightly taller than girls Weight gain 4-5 lbs. per yr Boys slightly heavier than girls

3 Con’t… Posture and body shape Becomes straighter and slimmer
Stomach flattens Holds shoulders back and upper body more erect Chest broadens and flattens with improved abdominal strength

4 Con’t… Legs lengthen rapidly Neck becomes longer
growing stronger and firmer Neck becomes longer Balance and coordination improved Holds arms near body when walking

5 Dressing: Encourage to dress themselves.
Allow child to make clothing choices Fabric should be comfortable Allow room for growth Choose items that allows child to easily distinguish front and back Choose economic clothing (not too expensive) because they outgrow it so soon Consider appropriateness for the occasion and activity for both clothing and shoes

6 Dressing Themselves: Remember safety
no loose cords no name on outside of clothes Group identification may become important Flame-resistant pajamas

7 Grooming: Children are less interested in bathing than as a toddler.
Praise can encourage the child to continue good hygiene habits

8 Eating Right Proper nutrition is important
Helps body meet growth needs and resist infections. Important for adults to model good nutritional behavior Modeling teaches child to do the same. Choose good snacks Low in salt, fat, sugar and calories. Balance calorie intake with physical activity.

9 Going to the Bathroom: Enuresis causes accidents
bedwetting, accidents that occur in response to emotional or physical problems By 4th birthday, most children have few accidents Accidents usually occur because child is concentrating on current activity

10 Bed-time Sleeping By age 4 afternoon nap is given up
Most children need hours of sleep in a day Bedtime routine is still important

11 Teeth Permanent teeth The set of lifelong teeth that will replace primary teeth begin to grow. Total set=32 teeth. Six-year molars 1st permanent teeth to appear Teeth lost in the same order they came in, 2 lower teeth 1st followed by the 2 upper front teeth

12 Care of teeth Regular teeth brushing and flossing is an important habit to encourage Dentists recommend parents assist the child with handling the toothbrush until age of five Regular dental checkups, to clean teeth and check for decay, are important

13 Motor skills--- 3 year olds
Gross: Jumps up and down in place with both feet Catches a ball with arms straight Rides a tricycle Fine: Stacks 9 or 10 blocks Screws lids on and off containers Draws circles horizontal and vertical lines

14 Motor Skills – 4 year old Gross: Fine: Hops on one foot
Throws ball overhand Alternates feet walking up and down stairs Walks backward easily Fine: Dresses and undresses self Cuts on line with scissors Copies a circle and a cross

15 Motor Skills ---5 year old
Gross: Turns somersaults Skips with alternating feet Balances on each foot for short period Fine: Draws a person with head, body, arms, and legs Prints some letters Buttons clothing Copies a triangle and a square Uses spoon and fork to eat, but still uses fingers for some foods

16 Motor Skills ---6 year old
Gross Motor: Can ride a two-wheel bicycle with training wheels Jumps rope Throws and catches a ball with more ease and accuracy (also requires fine motor skills and good hand-eye coordination) Fine Motor Skills: Cuts, pastes, and colors skillfully Writes entire words Ties shoes

17 Activity #1 Goal: To give you an idea of what it is like for preschooler to write using their fine motor skills.

18 I know my A, B, C’s Directions:
You will be using your LESS dominant hand to write your name and letters of the alphabet. For example: I am left handed so that is my DOMINANT hand, so my LESS DOMINANT would be my right hand. Use your own paper to write all of the letters of the alphabet. How does this compare to the physical development of a child learning to write.

19 Emotional characteristics of children 3-6:
Learning to be cooperative and considerate More physically capable so less frustrated More willing to take directions from others Modifies behavior to win praise and acceptance Loves to talk and talks to everyone and everything Can be reasoned with and controlled by words

20 Emotional characteristics of children 3-6:
Quite self-centered Can be defiant (rebellious) Impatient Loud Bossy with other children and adults Other times very loving and affectionate because they need and seek approval Wants to see himself/herself as separate from parents Vocabulary and language skills show great improvement over toddlers Test out the sound of words Active imagination leads to fears

21 Emotional characteristics of children 3-6:
Views himself/herself as a whole person, with a body, mind, and feelings Eager to explore the outer world, but may be fearful of unfamiliar people, places, experiences Emotionally impulsive Want to get up and walk around anytime they wish Strangeness is a fear when they go to kindergarten Strange people, strange places Empathy for others

22 Emotional characteristics of children 3-6:
Period of emotional turmoil Crave praise and approval Easily hurt and disturbed Often stubborn and quarrelsome At their worst with their own parents Resent being given directions 1st response likely to be “No!” Experience rapid mood changes Beginning to feel a deep feeling of happiness and joy leading to appreciation of more activities Can enjoy music or dance lessons and organized sports

23 Activity #2 Preschool Scenarios
Directions: Cut three 4” circles from construction paper, 1 red 1 green 1 black Write these words on the following colors: Red represents anger Green=jealousy Black=fear You may draw appropriate facial expressions on the circles. Teacher will read some scenarios that may happen in preschool. Close your eyes as you listen and hold up the circle that represents the emotion you think the child might be feeling. When I tell you to, open your eyes. Raise your hand with the corresponding circle color in your hand. After all hands are raised I will tell you to open your eyes. Be prepared to explain your choices.

24 Activity #3 Cartoon Drawing
Sketch-to-Stretch a cartoon that depicts a child either 3, 4, 5, or 6. Or choose a magazine picture Have the cartoon depict the child expressing one of the following: Anger Fear Jealousy AND The child’s caregiver responding to the child in a manner that encourages and boosts self-esteem. Write a CAPTION underneath the picture two-sentence summary of what is happening Sample on next slide

25 David makes me so angry when it’s his turn on the jungle gym.
Ryan, I love it when you wait quietly for your turn on the jungle gym. That is so nice of you to wait patiently because you know we all have to wait our turn. David makes me so angry when it’s his turn on the jungle gym.

26 Social characteristics of children:
3 year old: People are important Cooperative play Work in small groups Parents are not all-powerful in the child’s social lives Seek friends on their own Prefer some children over others

27 4 year old Form friendships with playmates
Spend more time in cooperative play Play in groups of three or four sharing toys and taking turns Bossy and inconsiderate, so fights may break out Family is still more important than friends Constantly seek approval If things go wrong, they look to parents and caregivers for comfort

28 5 year old Outgoing and talkative Can play in groups of five or six
Play is complex (harder, more difficult) Fights break out less frequently Quarreling results in name-calling and wild threats Develop more respect for others’ belongings Social acceptance from peers becomes more important Concerned about what friends say and do Do not want to be thought different; they fear ridicule (when someone mocks you, making fun)

29 6 year old Social relations are characterized by frictions, threats and stubbornness Want everything, and want to do things their way Friends are usually of the same sex, but play readily in mixed groups Enjoy group and organized teams When they tire of play, they simply drop out of a game Have no regard for team effort

30 Any questions???

31 Activity #4 Motor Skill’s Picture scramble
Directions: Using provided magazines, cut out 6 pictures that show children ages 3-6 performing a motor skills. After you have cut out 6 pictures, separate into 2 groups: FINE OR GROSS After you have separated your pictures, I need you to find your partner and scramble up your 6 pictures and SWITCH pictures with your partner. See if your partner can figure out which of your pictures are fine or gross…..remember, don’t tell your answers!!! Once both partners have got the pictures correct, you will then glue the pictures into the correct column on the poster.

32 Activity #5 Be creative -- Show me your talent!
Create a flyer or poster that could be placed in a pediatric dental or Doctor’s office to inform parents of proper life skills care for children ages 3-6, in one of the following areas: Self-Dressing or Happy Mealtimes

33 Posture and Body Shape Directions:
Select a partner and read each characteristic of posture and body shape of children ages three through six. As you read a characteristic, have your partner demonstrate the characteristic with his/her body. Discuss the difference between your body as a teen and a three- to six-year-old’s body. Body becomes straighter and slimmer Stomach flattens Holds shoulders back, upper body more erect Chest broadens and flattens with improved abdominal strength Legs lengthen rapidly, growing stronger and firmer Neck becomes longer Balance and coordination improves Holds arms near body when walking

34 Hints for Self-Dressing
Elastic waistbands Large neck openings on pullovers Buttons on front Big pull tabs on zippers Designs that child can easily distinguish front from back Hook-and-loop tape fasteners Comfortable fabric Allow room for growth Economic clothing Appropriateness for the occasion Durable fabric and construction Safety Hints No loose cords Flame resistant pajamas No names on outside of clothing

35 Happy Mealtimes Make mealtimes enjoyable and pleasant
Make portions small Cut food into bite-sized pieces Pour small amounts of liquid into a cup Try new foods one at a time Prepare finger foods that are easy-to-eat Take food away when finished Use eating equipment that is easy for child to grasp Praise successes Do not laugh at or scold mishaps Serve nutritious foods low in salt, fat, sugar and calories Parent should model good nutrition behavior so child will do the same

36 5 Activities Activity #1 Activity #2 Activity #3 Activity #4
I know my A, B, C’s Write with less dominant hand Activity #2 Preschool Scenarios FEAR, ANGER, JEALOUSY Activity #3 Cartoon Drawing Activity #4 Motor Skill’s Picture scramble Activity #5 Poster/Flyer for Dr. or Dental Office

37 Test Objective 6.01 Study: Notes Key Terms Chapter 13 MiTiReLa

38 Flame-resistant Defiant Tetanus Pertussis (whooping cough)
Key terms -- word bank Immunizations Polio Ridicule Hepatitis B Measles Enuresis 6-year molars Decay Flame-resistant Defiant Tetanus Pertussis (whooping cough) Coordination Mumps Hand-eye coordination Permanent Teeth Gross motor Diphtheria Fine motor Rubella (German measles)

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