2 Which tenses/forms do we use to express FUTURE in English? will/shallbe going toPresent continuousPresent simpleFuture continuousFuture perfect
3 “WILL/SHALL” future tense Form: will/shall + infinitive without toForm: will/shall + infinitive without toWILL is used with all personsI’ll/He’ll/She’ll come soon.Will you get me that pill?It probably won’t snow tomorrow.We’ll/They’ll help you.SHALL is used with I and we mainly to express suggestions.Shall I close the door?Shall we go to the theatre tonight?
4 WILL is used:to talk about FUTURE opinions, beliefs, hopes, predictions (I’ll probably come later. I don’t think I’ll go out.)to express offers, promises, requests, agreements, refusals (I won’t tell anybody. Will you shut the door, please?)to express decisions made at the time of speaking (“Did you call Mom?” “I forgot. I’ll call her now.”)in first conditional sentences (If she phones, I’ll tell you.)
5 Form: be + going + to infinitive “GOING TO” futureForm: be + going + to infinitiveForm: be + going + to infinitive+ I’m going to travel round the world.- He isn’t going to study much.? Are you going to be back soon?
6 GOING TO is used:to say what we have already decided to do, what we intend to do in the FUTURE. (intentions, plans)(I’ve heard you’re going to travel round the world.)to talk about predictions => when we can for example see or feel now that something will happen in the future(I’m going to be sick. => I feel really bad now.)
7 PRESENT CONTINUOUS is used: to say what someone has arranged to do – for example, arranged to meet someone, arranged to travel somewhere. We usually need a time adverbial.(=> “personal arrangements or appointments” which may be written in a diary)(I’m travelling to Dublin on Saturday. What are you doing tonight? I’m seeing my brother at the weekend.)
8 PRESENT SIMPLE is used: to talk about FUTURE events based on timetables, programmes or events in the calendar. (=> “official arrangements”)(My plane takes off at 7:30 tomorrow. Does the film start at 4.30 or 5.30? The bus leaves at 8.)
9 PRESENT SIMPLE is used: after if, unless, in case, as soon as, before, after, by the time, the next time, till, until, when, etc. where we may expect a simple future (=>First Conditional, Time clauses)(Wait, until you’re called. If it rains, I’ll stay at home.)NOTE:If we want to emphasize the fact that an activity will be finished before the other one happens we can use the PRESENT PERFECT instead of the Present Simple.(I’ll help you as soon as I’ve finished the washing up.You’ll feel better after you’ve had something to eat.)
10 Form: will + be + -ing form of the verb FUTURE CONTINUOUSForm: will + be + -ing form of the verbForm: will + be + -ing form of the verb+ This time next week I’ll be sunbathing on the beach.- They won’t (will not) be waiting.? Will you be passing the post office when you go out?
11 FUTURE CONTINUOUS is used: to say that we will be in the middle of doing something at a certain time in the FUTURE(At 10 o’clock tomorrow he’ll be working. This time tomorrow I’ll be flying to New York.)similarly to the Present continuous to talk about arrangements and planned events(We’ll be spending the summer in the USA. = We’re spending the summer in the USA.)
12 Form: will + have + the past participle of the verb FUTURE PERFECT SIMPLEForm: will + have + the past participle of the verbForm: will + have + the past participle of the verb+ By the time we get there, the lecture will have started.- They won’t (will not) have checked it by 5 o’clock.? Will you have left Prague before I return from my holiday?
13 FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS Form: will + have been + -ing form of the verbForm: will + have been + -ing form of the verb+ In May I will have been studying Italian for five years.- He won’t have been working for the company for a long time when he becomes the manager.? How long will you have been living in this flat by the end of this year?
14 FUTURE PERFECT is used: to express an action that will be finished/completed by a certain time in the future(I’ll have prepared it by the time you come back.)to describe the continuation of a state up to the time mentioned(We will have been married for two years on April 1st. By this time next week, I will have been working as a teacher for four years. )NOTE:The Future Perfect tense is often used with by and not…till/until + time and also with verbs like build, complete, finish, etc.
15 ReferencesALEXANDER, L.G.: Longman English Grammar. New York: Longman, ISBNMURPHY, R.: English Grammar In Use. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBNVINCE, M. and EMMERSON, P.: Intermediate Language Practice with key. Oxford: Macmillan Publishers Limited, ISBNVINCE, M. and EMMERSON, P.: First Certificate Language Practice with key. Oxford: Macmillan Publishers Limited, ISBN