Presentation on theme: "Block Day Stack your FCAT Website Review Packet on the back table."— Presentation transcript:
1 Block Day Stack your FCAT Website Review Packet on the back table. Read and complete pages in your textbook on Acids, Bases and pH (the “potential of Hydrogen”).In your packet, read over the Acids and Bases Notes Worksheet and answer the questions at the bottom.Pick up a lab answer sheet and put your name on it when finished. Then read over the lab instructions (green) at your table.
2 They are everywhere.. In your food In your house EVEN IN YOU!!!!! Acids & BasesThey are everywhere..In your foodIn your houseEVEN IN YOU!!!!!
3 What is an acid?An acid is a solution that has an excess of H+ ions. It comes from the Latin word acidus that means "sharp" or "sour".The more H + ions, the more acidic the solution.
4 Properties of an Acid Tastes Sour Conduct Electricity Corrosive, which means they break down certain substances. Many acids can corrode fabric, skin,and paperSome acids react strongly with metalsTurns blue litmus paper redPicture from BBC Revision Bites
5 Uses of Acids Acetic Acid = Vinegar Citric Acid = lemons, limes, & oranges. It is in many sour candies such as lemonhead & sour patch.Ascorbic acid = Vitamin C which your body needs to function.Sulfuric acid is used in the production of fertilizers, steel, paints, and plastics.Car batteries
6 What is a base? A base is a solution that has an excess of OH- ions. Another word for base is alkali.Bases are substances that can accept hydrogen ions
7 Properties of a Base Feel Slippery Taste Bitter Corrosive Can conduct electricity. (Think alkaline batteries.)Do not react with metals.Turns red litmus paper blue.
8 Uses of BasesBases give soaps, ammonia, and many other cleaning products some of their useful properties.The OH- ions interact strongly with certain substances, such as dirt and grease.Chalk and oven cleaner are examples of familiar products that contain bases.Your blood is a basic solution.
9 pH Scale pH is a measure of how acidic or basic a solution is. The pH scale ranges from 0 to 14.Acidic solutions have pH values below 7A solution with a pH of 0 is very acidic.A solution with a pH of 7 is neutral.Pure water has a pH of 7.Basic solutions have pH values above 7.
10 pH ScaleA change of 1 pH unit represents a tenfold change in the acidity of the solution.For example, if one solution has a pH of 1 and a second solution has a pH of 2, the first solution is not twice as acidic as the second—it is ten times more acidic.
11 Acid – Base ReactionsA reaction between an acid and a base is called neutralization. An acid-base mixture is not as acidic or basic as the individual starting solutions.
12 Acid – Base reactionsEach salt listed in this table can be formed by the reaction between an acid and a base.
13 pH of Common Substances Timberlake, Chemistry 7th Edition, page 335
14 IndicatorA substance or instrument that indicates if a substance is an acid, base or neutral.Look at the list of indicators in your packet.
16 pH paperpH paper changes color to indicate a specific pH value.
17 Acids and Bases in Solution HCl + H20 H3O Cl (more hydronium ions, more acidic)NaOH in water Na OH (more hydroxide ions, more basic)NaOH + HCl NaCl + HOH Acid + Base yields type of salt and waterNH3 + H20 NH OH ammonia gas + water yields ammonium and hydroxide ions
18 Situations in which pH is controlled “Heartburn”Planting vegetables and flowersFish Tanks and PondsBloodSwimming pools
19 Acid RainPollution in the air (sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen dioxide) combines with water to form various acids..
20 Rapid changes in pH can kill fish and other organisms in lakes and streams. Soil pH is affected and can kill plants and create sinkholes
24 What is a SALT?A salt is a neutral substance produced from the reaction of an acid and a base.Composed of the negative ion of an acid and the positive ion of a base.One of the products of a Neutralization ReactionExamples: KCl, MgSO4, Na3PO4
25 Neutralization Reaction A neutralization reaction is the reaction of an acid with a base to produce salt and water.ExampleH2SO4 + NaOH NaHSO4 + H2O
26 Digestion and pHDigestion-process by which foods are broken down into simpler substances.Mechanical digestion-physical process in which food is torn apart (mouth)Chemical digestion- chemical reactions in which large molecules are broken down into smaller molecules. (stomach and small intestines)
27 pH in the Digestive System Mouth-pH around 7. Saliva contains amylase, an enzyme which begins to break carbohydrates into sugars.Stomach- pH around 2. Proteins are broken down into amino acids by the enzyme pepsin.Small intestine-pH around 8. Most digestion ends. Small molecules move to bloodstream toward cells that use them
28 Digestive system mouth esophagus stomach small intestine large intestine
29 To Do: Complete the lab. When finished, read and complete Chapters 5-7 in textbook.