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Sexually Transmitted Diseases and HIV/AIDS

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1 Sexually Transmitted Diseases and HIV/AIDS
Chapter 24 Sexually Transmitted Diseases and HIV/AIDS

2 Lesson 1 Sexually Transmitted Diseases

3 What Are STDs? STDs-infections spread from person to person through sexual contact. (Also known as STIs) STD’s are communicable diseases- easily transmitted from one person to another Some STD’s are caused by bacterial infection and can be cured w/ medication. Others are caused by viruses and are incurable. Early diagnosis and treatment is crucial

4 What Are STDs? Most common STDs are asymptomatic-showing no symptoms or symptoms are mild and disappear after the onset of infection Lack of symptoms makes STD’s dangerous. WHY? Any person who has sexual contact w/ another person risks contracting an STD. Risk also increases w/ if number of partners increase. Approx. 9 million people between ages will become infected w/ an STD each year. Females are more likely to suffer complications and effects are more serious in females then males. CDC estimates that direct medical costs connected to STDs are more than $15.3 billion a year.

5 Common STDs Genital HPV infections Chlamydia Genital herpes Gonorrhea
Trichomoniasis Syphilis

6 Genital HPV Infections
Caused by the Human Papillomavirus (HPV)- a group of more than 100 kinds of viruses 6 million people are affected each year Most HPV infections can cause genital warts Does not have symptoms and will disappear w/o medical treatment Some HPV infections if not diagnosed and treated may cause abnormal Pap tests or may result in certain types of cervical cancer A vaccine treatment is now available

7 Chlamydia Bacterial infection that affects the reproductive organs of both males and females. 2.8 million Americans contract it each year Affects young females 3x more often than males Produces no symptoms Most common STD among teens If left untreated, it can cause serious complications: Females may develop pelvic inflammatory disease and suffer chronic pelvic pain or infertility Infertility in males Pregnant females can deliver prematurely Infants born to mothers w/ chlamydia may develop eye disease or pneumonia and fatal complications Females w/ chlamydia are 5x more likely to become infected w HIV if exposed to the virus

8 Genital Herpes Caused by the herpes simplex virus
Herpes simplex 1 generally causes cold sores in or near the mouth Herpes simplex 2 generally causes genital sores Both can infect the mouth and genitals 45 million people 12 and older have contracted genital herpes Asymptomatic If symptoms do occur, 1st outbreak will usually appear as blisters on genitals w/in 2 weeks of virus being transmitted Antiviral treatments can lesson the frequency of outbreaks There is no cure

9 Gonorrhea Bacterial STD that usually affects mucous membranes
2nd most commonly reported infectious disease in the U.S. CDC estimates more than 700,000 Americans are infected each year. Males generally are asymptomatic. Females show mild symptoms Can cause severe heath problems if left untreated. (infertility) Bacteria can also spread to the bloodstream and cause permanent damage to the joints Females can pass infection to their baby during childbirth. Babies may contract eye infections that can cause blindness

10 Trichomoniasis Caused by a microscopic protozoan that results in infections of the vagina, urethra and bladder 7.4 million new cases occur each year in U.S. May not produce symptoms Some males have a temporary irritation inside the penis, mild discharge or burning after urination Females experience vaginitis- inflammation of the vagina characterized by discharge, odor, irritation, and itching. Females more likely to contract HIV if exposed to it Babies are often born premature and have low birth weight

11 Syphilis Infection caused by a small bacterium called a spirochete.
Develop sores in genital area lasting a couple of weeks Passed from one person to another by direct contact w/ the sores during sexual activity Progresses through 3 stages: Primary Stage- sore appears on the external genitals or vagina. Can be easily treated at this stage. If untreated, sore heals but infection remains Second Stage- produces skin rash. If untreated, rash disappears but infection remains and progresses to 3rd stage Third Stage- can damage internal organs, cause brain dementia, and may cause death

12 The STD Epidemic 19 million are infected w/ an STD each year
Half are under the age of 24 Many STDs go undiagnosed and untreated due to: Embarrassment and fear Lack of symptoms Misinformation Notification polices

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