9. Sludge Deposits of fine solids that settle out from wastewater during the treatment process.
10. Septic tank An underground tank containing bacteria that treat wastewater as it passes through.
11. Leach field The ground area around a septic tank through which wastewater filters after leaving the tank.
Notes 1. Our drinking water either comes from a ________________ or _____________ water supply. surface underground
2. Four sources of drinking water a.b.c. d. lakes rivers reservoirs aquifer
3. _________________________, _________________________, and _______________________are three factors that affect water quality. acidity hardness Disease-causing organisms
4. On the pH scale ______ to ______ would be acidic, ______is neutral, and _____ to _____ is basic. 0 6 7 8 14
5. pH stands for _________________________. pH level refers to the amount of acid and alkaline contained inside of both the water and the growing medium or soil. If the environment is too acidic, the plant will not attract enough hydrogen, while an environment that is too alkaline will attract too much hydrogen. pH level refers to the amount of acid and alkaline contained inside of both the water and the growing medium or soil. If the environment is too acidic, the plant will not attract enough hydrogen, while an environment that is too alkaline will attract too much hydrogen. An environment that continually fluctuates from one extreme on the pH scale to the other is unhealthy for the plant. potential Hydrogen
6. __________ water contains high levels of _______________ and ______________. hard calcium magnesium
7. ____________________ is added to drinking water to __________________________. __________________________. chlorine Kill disease causing micro-organisms
Chapter 3 Fresh Water Section 2: Balancing Water Needs
Drought A water shortage caused by scarce rainfall in a particular area.
13. Conservation The process of using a resource wisely so it will not be used up.
14. Desalination The process of obtaining fresh water from salt water by removing the salt.
1. A water shortage occurs when there is _______________water, or too great is _______________water, or too great a _______________, or both. a _______________, or both. too little demand
2. Three major forms of water conservation by industries: –A. –B. –C. Reduce water Recycle water Reuse water
3. Two possible future sources of fresh water are___________________ and water are___________________ and_________________. *Environmental questions with the ice berg: How would a huge mass of ice offshore affect the local weather? What would happen to the living things as the ice cooled around it? Salt water (desalination) icebergs
4. Five ways you can conserve water at home: A. B. C. D. E. Take shorter showers Scrub vegetables in a basin of water, not under running water Keep a pitcher of drinking water in the refrigerator instead of running the water till it gets cold Turn off the faucet instead of letting it run Only run the washing machine when you have a full load
Chapter 3 Fresh Water Section 3: Freshwater Pollution Water: The basics of use, pollution, and our health in 5 minutes. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XMmpg35Bym0 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XMmpg35Bym0
15. Water pollution The addition of any substance that has a negative effect on water or the living things that depend on the water.
16. Point source A specific source of pollution that can be identified, such as a pipe.
17. Nonpoint source A widely spread source of pollution that is difficult to link to a specific point of origin, such as road runoff.
18. Acid rain Rain that is more acidic than normal, caused by the release of molecules of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide into the air.
19. Pesticide A chemical intended to kill insects and other organisms that damage crops.
1. Four major sources of water pollution are: A. B. C. D. Human wastes Industrial wastes Agricultural chemicals Runoff from roads
2. _______________________ is caused by ________________waste. Cholera bacteria in human
3. Three types of industrial pollutants: A. B. C. Chemicals Smoke and exhaust Heat pollution
4. __________________rain is caused by the _________________and by the _________________and ____________released by smokestacks and ___________exhaust. Acid Sulfur dioxide Nitrogen oxide car, truck, bus
5. The rich supply of nutrients from _____________________encourages the growth of ________________and algae in nearby bodies of water. fertilizers plants
What can you do? See Dr. Eddie Widder is doing-Making Water Pollution Visible: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kzjss MaQr6A http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kzjss MaQr6A http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kzjss MaQr6A
Chapter 3 Fresh Water Section 4: Water as an Energy Resource
20. Kinetic energy The form of energy that an object has when it is moving.
21. Potential energy Energy that is stored and waiting to be used.
22. Hydroelectric power Electricity produced by the kinetic energy of water moving over a waterfall or dam.
1. Four types of Energy in a Hydroelectric Power Plant A. B. C. D. Hydroelectric power: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rnPEtwQtmGQ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rnPEtwQtmGQ Pg. 107 in text Kinetic energy-form of energy an object has when it is moving Potential energy-energy stored and waiting to be used Hydroelectric power-electricity produced by the kinetic energy of water moving over a waterfall or a dam. Electrical energy
2. Three negative impacts a dam can have on an area A. B. C. Flooding the land can destroy wildlife habitats as well as farms and towns organisms can not survive the change of once fast moving waters becoming still The dam is a barrier across the river and it may prevent fish from traveling to the parts of a river where they usually lay their eggs and young fish are hatched.
Three positive impacts a dam can have on an area A. B. C. Water power is the least expensive Dams can supply water for irrigation and help in flood control Water is the least polluting large scale energy source