3 What do Baking Soda and Drain Cleaner have in common?
4 These substances can be grouped as either acids or bases These substances can be grouped as either acids or bases. Chemists use acids and bases as a way to classify substances. Acids and bases are common chemical compounds that can be grouped according to their chemical and physical properties.
5 AcidsSubstances classified as acids have specific properties. The chemical formula contains a Hydrogen Ion (H+) at the start – example HCl (hydrochloric acid). The chemical name includes the word “acid”. Acids are soluble in water. Acids dissociate into hydrogen ions H+ when dissolved in water. They taste sour. They will conduct electricity in solution.
6 AcidsYou must be careful with acids. Acids are corrosive and can be dangerous to the environment
8 BasesSubstances classified as bases have specific properties. The chemical formula usually contains a hydroxide ion (OH-) at the end – example sodium hydroxide, NaOH. The chemical name includes the word “hydroxide”. Ammonia is one exception to this rule. Ammonia, NH3 is a base and does not contain the hydroxide ion.
9 BasesBases dissociate into hydroxide ions, OH- when dissolved in water. They taste bitter. They will feel slippery to touch. They will conduct electricity in solution. Chemists use the word ALKALINE to describe solutions that are basic.
10 Common Bases Sodium hydroxide NaOH(aq) Potassium hydroxide KOH(aq) Aluminum hydroxideAl(OH)3(aq)Ammonium hydroxideNH4OH (aq)Sodium bicarbonateNaHCO3(aq)Cleaners, making paperSoap, cosmeticsHeartburn medicationsWindow cleanersUsed to make baked goods rise.
11 Indicators:Tasting and feeling are not tests used by chemists to determine whether or not a substance is an acid or a base. Both can be extremely dangerous depending on the substance.Instead, chemists use a dye called an indicator that changes colour depending on what the solution is.