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P. Sci. Unit 8 Chapter 4 Atoms.

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Presentation on theme: "P. Sci. Unit 8 Chapter 4 Atoms."— Presentation transcript:

1 P. Sci. Unit 8 Chapter 4 Atoms

2 Atomic Structure – timeline
Ancient Greece - Democritus proposed the atom – a tiny solid particle that could not be subdivided. 1904 – J.J. Thomson – discovered that atoms contained small, negatively charged particles called electrons.

3 Dalton’s Atomic Theory (#9)
Every element is made of tiny, unique, particles called atoms that cannot be subdivided. Atoms of the same element are exactly alike. Atoms of different elements can join to form molecules or compounds

4 1911 – Ernest Rutherford – proposed that the atom had two parts – the nucleus in the center (most of the mass) surrounded by the electrons. 1913 – Niels Bohr – hypothesized that electrons traveled in fixed orbits around the atom’s nucleus.

5 1913 – James Chadwick – concluded that the nucleus contained positive protons and neutral neutrons.
1926 – Erwin Schrodinger – developed the quantum mechanical model – which is based on the wavelike properties of the electron. (not a particle – leads to quantum physics)

6 1927 – Werner Heisenberg – (the Heisenberg uncertainty Principle) described that it is impossible to know precisely both an electron’s position and path at a given time. Led to the electron cloud theory.

7 Atoms The smallest particle that has the properties of an element.

8 Parts of an Atom Nucleus – small, dense center of an atom made up of 2 subatomic particles that are identical in size and mass. Protons – have a positive charge Neutrons – have no charge

9 Parts of an Atom cont. Electrons – are tiny subatomic particles that have very little mass that moves around the outside of the nucleus. These particles are negatively charged and form a “cloud” around the nucleus.

10 The number of protons and electrons an atom has is unique for each element.

11 Atomic Charge Atoms have no overall charge because the protons (+) cancel out the electrons (-). Helium protons 2 neutrons 2 electrons total charge 0

12 Protons positive (+) charge Found in the nucleus
# of protons = atomic # The number of protons identify the element (atomic #)

13 Neutrons no charge Found in the nucleus
Along with protons makes up atomic mass Atomic Mass – atomic number = # of neutrons (rounded to whole #)

14 Electrons negative (–) charge
travel in orbitals (or energy levels) around the nucleus. (electron cloud) Equals atomic number in neutral atoms valence electrons - the # of electrons in the outer shell and relates to the oxidation #

15 Unit of measure for atomic particles is Atomic mass unit (amu) protons and neutrons = about 1 amu (electrons are about 1/2000 of the size of protons and neutrons))

16 Chemical symbols The one or two letter abbreviation of the element name. Some are based on Latin name ALL 1st letter is upper case ALL 2nd letter is lower case

17 Mass Number or Atomic Mass
the sum of the number of protons and the number of neutrons in the nucleus of an atom. # of neutrons = mass # - atomic # Neutrons Protons +

18 Atom Summary Atomic Number = protons = electrons
Atomic Mass = Protons + Neutrons Neutrons = atomic mass – atomic number Atomic symbols First letter is ALWAYS upper case Second letter is ALWAYS lower case Example: Identify the Number of Protons, Neutrons and Electrons in Oxygen Oxygen element 6 with mass 16 P = 8 N = 16-8 = 8 E = 8

19 Atom Summary Example 2: Identify the Number of Protons, Neutrons and Electrons in Sulfur and Sodium

20 Isotopes Atoms of the same element that have a different # of neutrons and a different atomic mass. (identified by the element name followed by the mass # ) ex. C-12, C-14, B-10, B-11) Carbon 14 = 8 neutrons 6 protons 6 electrons 6 electrons 6 protons Carbon 12 = 6 neutrons

21 Average atomic mass the weighted - average mass of the mixture of all an atoms isotopes. The average atomic mass is close to the mass of its most abundant isotope. This is the number found on the periodic table

22 Using Bohr’s Atomic Model
Bohr was the 1st person to propose the concept of electrons having specific energy levels This explained how electrons could give off light ( by gain or lose energy) Bohr’s Model can be used to show how the electrons will arrange themselves around a nucleus.

23 BOHR MODEL Electrons are placed in energy levels surrounding the nucleus You fill the lower energy levels first 1st energy level can hold max of 2 electrons 2nd energy level can hold max of 8 electrons 3rd energy level can hold max of 18 electrons 4th energy level can hold max of 32 18e- 8e- Nucleus (p+ & n0) 2e-

24 Example Chlorine 17 protons 17 electrons 18 neutrons Valance Electrons: Electrons found in outer energy level. Chlorine has 7 electrons in outer energy level (ring 3)

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